CL-12 in Tjilatjap Drydock pics

CL-12 in Tjilatjap Drydock pics

John Melmoth
John Melmoth

March 21st, 2013, 8:17 pm #1

Hello,

Here are two poor(ish) but historically valuable images of CL-12 in the small floating drydock at Tjilatjap, Java as they worked on the wounded cruiser + a more well-known image. I put them up to show her 3" AA guns--they are about the only ones I could find that were useful for that--and for her airplanes.
I have marked--somewhat crudely--the three (3) 3"/50cals on her stbd side...with no attempt to number the guns accurately, so don't bother picking nits w/me about that...The other pic of the ship next to the dock required no marking.

These photos, BTW, show that the old light cruiser had both of her SOCs still intact at this point, although one of her pilots, Eddie Blessman--well-known to HOUSTON's aviators--had been killed in the bomb hits.

Photographic evidence of damage to American warships was usually quite thorough, and these pics prove it--It is also of note that similar photos were taken of HOUSTON's wounds after the same attacks, but these were later sent out on the PECOS and were lost with that ship.

These pictures are part of a 79-page CONFIDENTIAL wartime document compiled by the ship after her return & called "Steps taken to make USS MARBLEHEAD seaworthy following action with Japanese planes in Java Sea"---

JM





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Nelson
Nelson

March 22nd, 2013, 6:05 pm #2

Yep, three 3-inch guns on Marblehead's side for sure, and no doubt they're L/50.

You may enjoy something sent to me recently, which combines early 20th century naval ordnance and one of your favorite naval officers: Text-Book of Ordnance and Gunnery (Second Edition), Revised and Arranged for the Use of Midshipmen at the U.S. Naval Academy, by Commander William F. Fullam, U.S. Navy, and Lieutenant Thomas C. Hart, U.S. Navy (Annapolis: United States Naval Institute, 1905).

Actually, that citation hints at some fascinating realities:

(1) A mere decade before, when Hart himself was a student at the USNA, he and his fellows were termed cadets (or naval cadets).* Upon graduation, the former cadet could count on at least two years with the Fleet with the rank of passed midshipman, a warrant officer, before promotion---and commission---to ensign. Whether exceptions were made for particularly distinguished graduates, with direct commission to ensign, I do not know at this time, but will endeavor to find out. In 1902, the USNA students once again became midshipmen, and a decade later, the mandatory two-year trial period with the Fleet as passed midshipmen was abolished, and upon completion of study, the midshipmen were directly awarded commissions as ensigns.

(2) I have recently seen a photograph of a group of naval officers in China in the early 20th century, all of whom are wearing sidearms, with one of them, from all appearances an ensign in the U.S. Navy, identified as Passed Midshipman So-and-so. It would seem intuitive that some difference in uniform attended this early post-graduation rank, e.g., a fouled anchor in place of the commissioned officer's star or a difference in color in sleeve braid, but this b&w photo reveals naught.

(3) Hart graduated in 1897, and a mere eight years later, he was a full lieutenant AND instructor of ordnance at the USNA. He did serve the obligatory period as a passed midshipman, so that's a mighty fast elevation in rank. There was probably the usual acceleration in promotion rate due to the brief Spanish-American War, but even so, Hart's fast rise in rank as a junior officer suggests he was well above par among his peers.

*[Back story: In the early 1890s, the USN was looking to replace the steel or bronze breechloading landing and boat howitzers manufactured during the 1870s and 1880s. It tested 6-pounder BL landing guns submitted by the Hotchkiss and Driggs-Schroeder arms companies. They were by no means bad guns, but after all said and done, the navy considered them too light for the task of effectively supporting naval landing parties. Therefore they were "...turned over to the Naval Academy authorities for the use of the cadets." (annual Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Ordnance, 1892), and "Six more 6-pounder field guns.....are being made at the Washington Navy-Yard for the use of the cadets at the naval academy." (annual Report of the Chief of BuOrd, 1893). As I wrote, they were once again designated midshipmen in 1902. And please note: the italics are mine.]

Nelson
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Joined: March 11th, 2011, 7:22 am

March 22nd, 2013, 8:53 pm #3

Hello,

Here are two poor(ish) but historically valuable images of CL-12 in the small floating drydock at Tjilatjap, Java as they worked on the wounded cruiser + a more well-known image. I put them up to show her 3" AA guns--they are about the only ones I could find that were useful for that--and for her airplanes.
I have marked--somewhat crudely--the three (3) 3"/50cals on her stbd side...with no attempt to number the guns accurately, so don't bother picking nits w/me about that...The other pic of the ship next to the dock required no marking.

These photos, BTW, show that the old light cruiser had both of her SOCs still intact at this point, although one of her pilots, Eddie Blessman--well-known to HOUSTON's aviators--had been killed in the bomb hits.

Photographic evidence of damage to American warships was usually quite thorough, and these pics prove it--It is also of note that similar photos were taken of HOUSTON's wounds after the same attacks, but these were later sent out on the PECOS and were lost with that ship.

These pictures are part of a 79-page CONFIDENTIAL wartime document compiled by the ship after her return & called "Steps taken to make USS MARBLEHEAD seaworthy following action with Japanese planes in Java Sea"---

JM





Any chance of larger copies of the two pix. I'm interested in the details of the SOC painting schemes
Cheers
Bruce
http://www.perthone.com/perth.htm
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Joined: December 27th, 2007, 10:57 pm

March 22nd, 2013, 9:18 pm #4

Yep, three 3-inch guns on Marblehead's side for sure, and no doubt they're L/50.

You may enjoy something sent to me recently, which combines early 20th century naval ordnance and one of your favorite naval officers: Text-Book of Ordnance and Gunnery (Second Edition), Revised and Arranged for the Use of Midshipmen at the U.S. Naval Academy, by Commander William F. Fullam, U.S. Navy, and Lieutenant Thomas C. Hart, U.S. Navy (Annapolis: United States Naval Institute, 1905).

Actually, that citation hints at some fascinating realities:

(1) A mere decade before, when Hart himself was a student at the USNA, he and his fellows were termed cadets (or naval cadets).* Upon graduation, the former cadet could count on at least two years with the Fleet with the rank of passed midshipman, a warrant officer, before promotion---and commission---to ensign. Whether exceptions were made for particularly distinguished graduates, with direct commission to ensign, I do not know at this time, but will endeavor to find out. In 1902, the USNA students once again became midshipmen, and a decade later, the mandatory two-year trial period with the Fleet as passed midshipmen was abolished, and upon completion of study, the midshipmen were directly awarded commissions as ensigns.

(2) I have recently seen a photograph of a group of naval officers in China in the early 20th century, all of whom are wearing sidearms, with one of them, from all appearances an ensign in the U.S. Navy, identified as Passed Midshipman So-and-so. It would seem intuitive that some difference in uniform attended this early post-graduation rank, e.g., a fouled anchor in place of the commissioned officer's star or a difference in color in sleeve braid, but this b&w photo reveals naught.

(3) Hart graduated in 1897, and a mere eight years later, he was a full lieutenant AND instructor of ordnance at the USNA. He did serve the obligatory period as a passed midshipman, so that's a mighty fast elevation in rank. There was probably the usual acceleration in promotion rate due to the brief Spanish-American War, but even so, Hart's fast rise in rank as a junior officer suggests he was well above par among his peers.

*[Back story: In the early 1890s, the USN was looking to replace the steel or bronze breechloading landing and boat howitzers manufactured during the 1870s and 1880s. It tested 6-pounder BL landing guns submitted by the Hotchkiss and Driggs-Schroeder arms companies. They were by no means bad guns, but after all said and done, the navy considered them too light for the task of effectively supporting naval landing parties. Therefore they were "...turned over to the Naval Academy authorities for the use of the cadets." (annual Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Ordnance, 1892), and "Six more 6-pounder field guns.....are being made at the Washington Navy-Yard for the use of the cadets at the naval academy." (annual Report of the Chief of BuOrd, 1893). As I wrote, they were once again designated midshipmen in 1902. And please note: the italics are mine.]

Nelson
"You may enjoy something sent to me recently, which combines early 20th century naval ordnance and one of your favorite naval officers: Text-Book of Ordnance and Gunnery (Second Edition), Revised and Arranged for the Use of Midshipmen at the U.S. Naval Academy, by Commander William F. Fullam, U.S. Navy, and Lieutenant Thomas C. Hart, U.S. Navy (Annapolis: United States Naval Institute, 1905)."

Available for download via Internet Archive from Google Books.


http://archive.org/details/textbookordnanc00acadgoog
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John Melmoth
John Melmoth

March 23rd, 2013, 3:09 am #5

Any chance of larger copies of the two pix. I'm interested in the details of the SOC painting schemes
Cheers
Bruce
http://www.perthone.com/perth.htm
Hi Bruce,

I will send those to you via an email, for what they are worth, and also some info on HOUSTON SOC paint-schemes for the wonderful HMAS PERTH website...Because I know you are interested in such, and I may be able to help a little with that. I can tell you with a fairly high degree of certainty that HOUSTON's SOC still had a painted cowling and the Chinese symbol on her fuselage in MARCH 1941 at Cavite...

You may be interested to know I was lucky enough to spend quite a bit of time with John Waller here--and I met with the Australian Ambassador, The Honorable Kim Beazley, a native of Perth, I think--and one thing John & I discussed--which he seemed not to be aware of--was that bizarre camo scheme of PERTH's at the end, with one side (stbd) painted in her Med dazzle & the other (port) all blue-gray...VERY confusing!

Talked over the VC business re Hec--both with Ambassador B. and with John Waller--which seems to have run out of steam at the moment, I guess. That doesn't mean it's over, of course--I hope not; I'm pulling for Hec!

"JM"

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John Melmoth
John Melmoth

March 23rd, 2013, 3:20 am #6

Yep, three 3-inch guns on Marblehead's side for sure, and no doubt they're L/50.

You may enjoy something sent to me recently, which combines early 20th century naval ordnance and one of your favorite naval officers: Text-Book of Ordnance and Gunnery (Second Edition), Revised and Arranged for the Use of Midshipmen at the U.S. Naval Academy, by Commander William F. Fullam, U.S. Navy, and Lieutenant Thomas C. Hart, U.S. Navy (Annapolis: United States Naval Institute, 1905).

Actually, that citation hints at some fascinating realities:

(1) A mere decade before, when Hart himself was a student at the USNA, he and his fellows were termed cadets (or naval cadets).* Upon graduation, the former cadet could count on at least two years with the Fleet with the rank of passed midshipman, a warrant officer, before promotion---and commission---to ensign. Whether exceptions were made for particularly distinguished graduates, with direct commission to ensign, I do not know at this time, but will endeavor to find out. In 1902, the USNA students once again became midshipmen, and a decade later, the mandatory two-year trial period with the Fleet as passed midshipmen was abolished, and upon completion of study, the midshipmen were directly awarded commissions as ensigns.

(2) I have recently seen a photograph of a group of naval officers in China in the early 20th century, all of whom are wearing sidearms, with one of them, from all appearances an ensign in the U.S. Navy, identified as Passed Midshipman So-and-so. It would seem intuitive that some difference in uniform attended this early post-graduation rank, e.g., a fouled anchor in place of the commissioned officer's star or a difference in color in sleeve braid, but this b&w photo reveals naught.

(3) Hart graduated in 1897, and a mere eight years later, he was a full lieutenant AND instructor of ordnance at the USNA. He did serve the obligatory period as a passed midshipman, so that's a mighty fast elevation in rank. There was probably the usual acceleration in promotion rate due to the brief Spanish-American War, but even so, Hart's fast rise in rank as a junior officer suggests he was well above par among his peers.

*[Back story: In the early 1890s, the USN was looking to replace the steel or bronze breechloading landing and boat howitzers manufactured during the 1870s and 1880s. It tested 6-pounder BL landing guns submitted by the Hotchkiss and Driggs-Schroeder arms companies. They were by no means bad guns, but after all said and done, the navy considered them too light for the task of effectively supporting naval landing parties. Therefore they were "...turned over to the Naval Academy authorities for the use of the cadets." (annual Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Ordnance, 1892), and "Six more 6-pounder field guns.....are being made at the Washington Navy-Yard for the use of the cadets at the naval academy." (annual Report of the Chief of BuOrd, 1893). As I wrote, they were once again designated midshipmen in 1902. And please note: the italics are mine.]

Nelson
Nelson,

Pretty interesting, and puts me in mind of the equally confusing system used by Nihon Kaigun, wherein the 'cadets' emerged from Etajima as SHOI KOHOISEI which is translated as both "Midshipmen" and/or "Ensign Candidates"--a kind of interim rank they held for the first year out of academy, IIRC. (I may not be recalling this entirely properly, however.)

Nothing about Hart's career would much surprise me...Early on he had a bit of an 'independent' streak, it seems, that by some accounts bordered on insubordination--but I suspect this was simply a manifestation of Tommy Hart being his own man.

FWIW, though, he later just saw himself as very lucky. Altho' never one to blow his own horn, I mean.

JM
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Nelson
Nelson

March 23rd, 2013, 6:15 pm #7

Yep, three 3-inch guns on Marblehead's side for sure, and no doubt they're L/50.

You may enjoy something sent to me recently, which combines early 20th century naval ordnance and one of your favorite naval officers: Text-Book of Ordnance and Gunnery (Second Edition), Revised and Arranged for the Use of Midshipmen at the U.S. Naval Academy, by Commander William F. Fullam, U.S. Navy, and Lieutenant Thomas C. Hart, U.S. Navy (Annapolis: United States Naval Institute, 1905).

Actually, that citation hints at some fascinating realities:

(1) A mere decade before, when Hart himself was a student at the USNA, he and his fellows were termed cadets (or naval cadets).* Upon graduation, the former cadet could count on at least two years with the Fleet with the rank of passed midshipman, a warrant officer, before promotion---and commission---to ensign. Whether exceptions were made for particularly distinguished graduates, with direct commission to ensign, I do not know at this time, but will endeavor to find out. In 1902, the USNA students once again became midshipmen, and a decade later, the mandatory two-year trial period with the Fleet as passed midshipmen was abolished, and upon completion of study, the midshipmen were directly awarded commissions as ensigns.

(2) I have recently seen a photograph of a group of naval officers in China in the early 20th century, all of whom are wearing sidearms, with one of them, from all appearances an ensign in the U.S. Navy, identified as Passed Midshipman So-and-so. It would seem intuitive that some difference in uniform attended this early post-graduation rank, e.g., a fouled anchor in place of the commissioned officer's star or a difference in color in sleeve braid, but this b&w photo reveals naught.

(3) Hart graduated in 1897, and a mere eight years later, he was a full lieutenant AND instructor of ordnance at the USNA. He did serve the obligatory period as a passed midshipman, so that's a mighty fast elevation in rank. There was probably the usual acceleration in promotion rate due to the brief Spanish-American War, but even so, Hart's fast rise in rank as a junior officer suggests he was well above par among his peers.

*[Back story: In the early 1890s, the USN was looking to replace the steel or bronze breechloading landing and boat howitzers manufactured during the 1870s and 1880s. It tested 6-pounder BL landing guns submitted by the Hotchkiss and Driggs-Schroeder arms companies. They were by no means bad guns, but after all said and done, the navy considered them too light for the task of effectively supporting naval landing parties. Therefore they were "...turned over to the Naval Academy authorities for the use of the cadets." (annual Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Ordnance, 1892), and "Six more 6-pounder field guns.....are being made at the Washington Navy-Yard for the use of the cadets at the naval academy." (annual Report of the Chief of BuOrd, 1893). As I wrote, they were once again designated midshipmen in 1902. And please note: the italics are mine.]

Nelson
The following posting will...eventually...involve Admirals William Halsey, William Leahy, Chester Nimitz, and John McCain, and the last-named flag officer's grandson, Senator John S. McCain of Arizona, candidate for the presidency of the United States in 2004. But first it has to do with the operations of the USN's "Mosquito Fleet", the small gunboats, many or most acquired from Spain, operating during the Philippine Insurrection of the early 20th century. And all of it is relevant to the then-rank of passed midshipman. For photos of several of these small gunboats, and other contemporary images of interest, including a very sharply turned out Ensign Nimitz, see

http://www.morolandhistory.com/06.PG-Mo ... _fleet.htm

A not-so-arbitrary exemplar is USS Paragua, acquired by the USN from the U.S. Army in 1899, which had purchased the warship from Spain. By May 1905 her commanding officer was Ensign Charles S. Kerrick and her executive officer Passed Midshipman Allen B. Reed, who had graduated from the USNA the previous year. It was clearly a junior officer's dream-come-true: the opportunity for independent action and feats of derring-do, far from the watchful eye of one's superior officer. While XO of Paragua, Reed would lead a naval landing party equipped with a Colt-Browning machine gun ashore on Pata Island, to support an army detachment in quelling insurgent forces. He acted both as the machine gun and signals officer for the combined expedition. One month later, Reed commanded a 60-ton steam launch armed with 1-pounders and machine guns that stole into shallow rivers and coves to search out rebel activity. Ensign Kerrick submitted his quarterly fitness report to the naval academy on the not-very-much-younger Reed, writing, "In command of a 60 ton steam launch on patrol for two weeks and did excellent work. Also with landing party assisting Army in Jolo. Mentioned by commanding officer of expedition in his report for coolness and good judgment on firing line."

What I find of interest is that Kerrick submitted the fitness report on Reed to the naval academy, strongly implying that the USNA retained significant say over passed midshipmen until finally commissioned. That is, it was their performance in the Fleet, as judged by superiors AND the academy, as well as vacancy in grade that determined their commissioning and promotion. Passed Midshipman Reed obtained his commission and promotion to ensign on February 2, 1906.

Finally, there is this wonderful final paragraph on USS Paragua in Wikipedia, the entirety much worth the read:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Paragua_(1888)

"Among U.S. Naval officers at the turn of the 20th century, the command of a small gunboat during the Philippine Insurrection was considered a choice assignment due to the likelihood of engagement and the autonomy of generally choosing patrol routes and ports of call. Such noted World War II admirals as William Leahy, Chester Nimitz, William "Bull" Halsey and John S. McCain, Sr. all were first or second in command of patrol gunboats in the Philippines very early in their careers. Admiral Frederick J. Horne, who was Vice Chief of Naval Operations and directed all navy logistics during World War II, served on Paragua while a passed midshipman, as did Admiral Yates Sterling, Jr., who commanded Paragua as a lieutenant from December 1900-December 1901. In his book Faith of My Fathers, Senator John S. McCain wrote of an interview he conducted in the 1950s as a midshipman at the Naval Academy with retired Admiral Chester Nimitz, who was then in his 70s. While McCain wanted to learn about the World War II experience of his grandfather, Admiral John S. McCain, Sr., the younger McCain recalled that all Nimitz wanted to talk about were the adventures that he and McCain's grandfather [then a passed midshipman], his executive officer on USS Panay, had together in 1907, while chasing pirates in the Moro Gulf and visiting ports freely as they chose. Nimitz considered it the best time of his entire navy career." Or to paraphrase the old chestnut, it takes a pirate to chase a pirate.

Nelson
Last edited by Visje1981 on March 24th, 2013, 7:58 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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John Melmoth
John Melmoth

March 23rd, 2013, 7:14 pm #8

Yep, three 3-inch guns on Marblehead's side for sure, and no doubt they're L/50.

You may enjoy something sent to me recently, which combines early 20th century naval ordnance and one of your favorite naval officers: Text-Book of Ordnance and Gunnery (Second Edition), Revised and Arranged for the Use of Midshipmen at the U.S. Naval Academy, by Commander William F. Fullam, U.S. Navy, and Lieutenant Thomas C. Hart, U.S. Navy (Annapolis: United States Naval Institute, 1905).

Actually, that citation hints at some fascinating realities:

(1) A mere decade before, when Hart himself was a student at the USNA, he and his fellows were termed cadets (or naval cadets).* Upon graduation, the former cadet could count on at least two years with the Fleet with the rank of passed midshipman, a warrant officer, before promotion---and commission---to ensign. Whether exceptions were made for particularly distinguished graduates, with direct commission to ensign, I do not know at this time, but will endeavor to find out. In 1902, the USNA students once again became midshipmen, and a decade later, the mandatory two-year trial period with the Fleet as passed midshipmen was abolished, and upon completion of study, the midshipmen were directly awarded commissions as ensigns.

(2) I have recently seen a photograph of a group of naval officers in China in the early 20th century, all of whom are wearing sidearms, with one of them, from all appearances an ensign in the U.S. Navy, identified as Passed Midshipman So-and-so. It would seem intuitive that some difference in uniform attended this early post-graduation rank, e.g., a fouled anchor in place of the commissioned officer's star or a difference in color in sleeve braid, but this b&w photo reveals naught.

(3) Hart graduated in 1897, and a mere eight years later, he was a full lieutenant AND instructor of ordnance at the USNA. He did serve the obligatory period as a passed midshipman, so that's a mighty fast elevation in rank. There was probably the usual acceleration in promotion rate due to the brief Spanish-American War, but even so, Hart's fast rise in rank as a junior officer suggests he was well above par among his peers.

*[Back story: In the early 1890s, the USN was looking to replace the steel or bronze breechloading landing and boat howitzers manufactured during the 1870s and 1880s. It tested 6-pounder BL landing guns submitted by the Hotchkiss and Driggs-Schroeder arms companies. They were by no means bad guns, but after all said and done, the navy considered them too light for the task of effectively supporting naval landing parties. Therefore they were "...turned over to the Naval Academy authorities for the use of the cadets." (annual Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Ordnance, 1892), and "Six more 6-pounder field guns.....are being made at the Washington Navy-Yard for the use of the cadets at the naval academy." (annual Report of the Chief of BuOrd, 1893). As I wrote, they were once again designated midshipmen in 1902. And please note: the italics are mine.]

Nelson
Hello,

As best as I can determine from Hart's bio (A DIFFERENT KIND OF VICTORY by Leutze) he left the academy as a "passed midshipman" (Class of '97) but in those days it was a four-year period before becoming an Ensign.

The enrollees at Annapolis are also referred to throughout as "cadets" as well as "plebes"...

FWIW,

JM
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Nelson
Nelson

March 23rd, 2013, 10:31 pm #9

Don,

> As best as I can determine from Hart's bio (A DIFFERENT KIND OF VICTORY by Leutze) he left the academy as a "passed midshipman" (Class of '97), but in those days it was a four-year period before becoming an Ensign. >

That is simply incorrect, either an arithmetic miscalculation or failed memory by either Hart or Leutze.

To quote A Brief History of the U.S. Naval Academy (variously updated):

"In 1912, Congress authorized commissioning midshipmen as ensigns on graduation day, and ended the previously required two years of post-graduation sea service as warrant officers." The same information may be found in a more formal source, Commission of ensign to graduates of the Naval Academy at end of four years' course, Public Law No. 62-98. 37 Statutes 73 (1912). Which is to say that thereafter, the commission of ensign in the U.S. Navy would require the completion of four years of classroom study and an unspecified number of summer cruises while at the USNA. Those four years may be where the confusion lies.

Let's look at two graduates in the USNA Class of 1897 and three in the 1904-1905 mid-decade period. The sources are various on-line biographical ones, but they are in complete agreement with one another in regard to the two-year trial period a passed midshipman had to spend with the Fleet.

1. Arlington National Cemetery site: "In 1897, [Thomas C. Hart] graduated 13th in his class of 47 from the U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland....He was commissioned in 1899."

2. [William D. Leahy] attended the United States Naval Academy, graduating 14th in his class of 47 in 1897....Having completed the two years of sea duty then required by law, Leahy was commissioned Ensign on July 1, 1899."

3. "[William F. Halsey] graduated from the Naval Academy in 1904....and was commissioned ensign on February 2, 1906."

4. [Allen B.] Reed entered the Academy on September 22, 1900, as one of 93 fourth class naval cadets, as midshipmen were known until July 1, 1902 when the rank reverted to the traditional 'midshipman'....Completing his academic studies at the Naval Academy, Reed received his warrant as a passed midshipman. On January 25, 1904 he was detached from Annapolis 'to home and ready for sea'. At that time, passed midshipmen were required to successfully complete two years sea duty before being commissioned as an ensign."

Nota bene: Both Halsey and Reed (and very likely classmate Husband E. Kimmel) were promoted to ensign on February 2, 1906, and then promoted to lieutenant junior grade AND lieutenant on February 2, 1909. This may explain Thomas Hart's rapid promotion if he and his classmates of 1897 experienced the same rise in rank, spending not one day as a lieutenant j.g.

5. "[Chester W. Nimitz] graduated with distinction on 30 January 1905, seventh in a class of 114. He joined the battleship Ohio at San Francisco, and cruised on her to the Far East. In September 1906, he was transferred to the cruiser USS Baltimore (C-3); and, on 31 January 1907, after the two years at sea as a warrant officer then required by law, he was commissioned as an Ensign."

This last entry shows us that even midshipmen who graduated with distinction were not commissioned directly as ensigns, and thus had to serve in the Fleet for the required two years along with everyone else.

Nelson
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John Melmoth
John Melmoth

March 24th, 2013, 12:03 am #10

Let me briefly rephrase that : to get one's commission then took 6 years in all. As a passed midshipman (after four yrs) Hart would spend two yrs at sea BEFORE final exams and getting his commission.

In the exams of 1899 he graduated 7th out of his class (of 47); Harry Yarnell, who Hart replaced as CinCAF in July '39, was top of the class.

But this was all in Leutze's bio almost 40 yrs ago...

JM
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