Transporting very long bits of freight

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bogman102
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Joined: 10 Oct 2007, 09:40

07 Nov 2017, 20:13 #11

Thanks for your insight on the tie downs!
I tried searching Google about six months ago and came up with nothing.
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3330
Member
Joined: 26 Aug 2003, 09:42

09 Nov 2017, 03:24 #12

Statkowski wrote: Back before tie-down chains with latching mechanisms and tie-down straps were invented/created, annealed iron wire was used to secure loads.  With multiple strands wrapped around whatever it was that needed such, the wire was twisted taut using a pipe, iron rod or spare piece of wood.  For pipes and pieces of lumber on a flatcar, this kept the entire package as one unit.  For vehicles, it kept the vehicle from moving, not only forward or backward, but also sideways.  
Henry (if I may call you that): At sea, the wire twisted taut using a pipe/piece of wood was known as a "Spanish Windlass".  No idea if the term is still in use.  I don't see it as derogatory, but its bound to be insensitive now.
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Statkowski
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Joined: 05 Mar 2003, 09:39

09 Nov 2017, 04:32 #13

I doubt the nautical types seriously concern themselves about sensitivity.  And the term is probably still used, although the near universal use of ISO shipping containers has cut back considerably on break-bulk loading.

Interestingly, in transportation school they taught us all about securing cargo for land movement (which was basically concerned with longitudinal and lateral cargo movement), air movement (in which we also had to be concerned with vertical movement in addition to the other two), and ocean transport (which was all three axes ("axes" is the plural of "axis") plus all three in a circular motion, which meant six axes of possible movement to restrain).

Properly secured cargo on scale model flatcars and gondola cars isn't something most railroad modelers concern themselves with, but it's something an experienced transporter will spot in a heartbeat.

During a REFORGER exercise in Germany two of us were sent to observe and monitor a unit loading their equipment onto German railcars.  They were using a crane to lift 20-foot containers.  I looked at the lines lifting the containers, three cables and one chain (ran out of cable?) hooked to the container, told the Lieutenant in charge that the chain wasn't strong enough and was going to break.  He scoffed, said it was a 25,000-pound capacity chain (but I knew from experience and training that it only had maybe 8,000 pounds of tensile strength due to the angle of connection).  It broke, the container dropped about ten feet.  I looked at him shook my head, and walked away.  His problem, not mine.  At least he knew better than to have anyone stationed underneath the container.  Given half a chance, regardless of the mode of transport, improperly secured cargo will kill you.
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Vandibe
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Joined: 20 Mar 2017, 21:57

11 Nov 2017, 03:51 #14

I’m still active duty Navy. We are NOT a sensitive crowd. Never used the term Spanish windlass. Navy’s been using chains with hooks on one end and clamps on the other that you run the chain through, then when you clamp it down it draws the whole rig right. The clamp has a kind of hook that’s inserted into padeyes in the deck. Padeyes are recessed holes shaped to hold the hook. Been using that system since WWII when amphibious transport came into its own.

To bring this back to the New Haven, I’m trying to pull together a WWII freight with DL-109 power. Maybe something like a war special, running to or from Fore River. Found a video on you tube that shows war material being loaded and shipped. “Trains and Railroads: Loaded for War 1944”. The soldiers are using ridiculously flimsy wire in the Spanish windlass form described above and very simple wood dunnage nailed into the deck of the flat car. No way that stuff would stop a tank or tank destroyer if they hit the brakes. Saw one picture online of Willy’s jeeps literally stacked on top of each other - nothing separating the layers. No dunnage or straps used that I️ could see. I️ guess why bother, they are just going to get shot up anyhow, so what’s a few songs. Also, PRR used some F22 (?) flats to transport battleship barrels. 2 cars per barrel. I’ve never seen good detailed pictures, but they used some sort of sliding bolster on one flat car deck that the barrel slid back and forth on as the car turned. Those PRR flats would have been common on the New Haven coming and going from Fore River. I️ assume, but have no evidence, that big gun cruisers had their gun barrels transported the same way. Fore River built half the cruisers we and allies used in WWII, not to mention thousands of other ships, so war freight had to be common. Bet there where some interesting late night loads. But, with war restrictions, there are precious few photos out there.

Eric
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Statkowski
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Joined: 05 Mar 2003, 09:39

11 Nov 2017, 04:24 #15

Vandibe wrote: The soldiers are using ridiculously flimsy wire in the Spanish windlass form described above and very simple wood dunnage nailed into the deck of the flat car. No way that stuff would stop a tank or tank destroyer if they hit the brakes. 

Eric
Rest assured that the items shown in the film were secured according to A.A.R. loading specifications.  Restraint requirements for rail shipments (two axes) versus nautical shipments (six axes) are significantly different.  Far more restraint needed in all directions for ocean shipments, including having a supercargo check each individual restraint at least once or twice a day.

For ocean shipments, locomotives (diesel or steam) were routinely shipped as deck-mounted cargo (too big to fit through a hatch, or to move around belowdecks.  For the diesels, their trucks were, on occasion, shipped separately, stowed in either the Upper Tween Deck or Lower Tween Deck.  Heard a sea tale concerning a runaway truck belowdeck.  Tiedowns got loose, one gave way (leading to the others failing, also).  Ended up with a truck assembly (traction motors included) rolling around the hold while the ship rolled in a storm.  Bottom line?  The truck ended up getting a good running start on one side of the hold, went all the way across, picking up momentum along the way, and punched a hole in the hull above the water line and exited the ship.  Not sure, but it could have been a Farrell Lines vessel.
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