Transporting very long bits of freight

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bogman102
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Joined: 10 Oct 2007, 09:40

07 Nov 2017, 20:13 #11

Thanks for your insight on the tie downs!
I tried searching Google about six months ago and came up with nothing.
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3330
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Joined: 26 Aug 2003, 09:42

09 Nov 2017, 03:24 #12

Statkowski wrote: Back before tie-down chains with latching mechanisms and tie-down straps were invented/created, annealed iron wire was used to secure loads.  With multiple strands wrapped around whatever it was that needed such, the wire was twisted taut using a pipe, iron rod or spare piece of wood.  For pipes and pieces of lumber on a flatcar, this kept the entire package as one unit.  For vehicles, it kept the vehicle from moving, not only forward or backward, but also sideways.  
Henry (if I may call you that): At sea, the wire twisted taut using a pipe/piece of wood was known as a "Spanish Windlass".  No idea if the term is still in use.  I don't see it as derogatory, but its bound to be insensitive now.
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Statkowski
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Joined: 05 Mar 2003, 09:39

09 Nov 2017, 04:32 #13

I doubt the nautical types seriously concern themselves about sensitivity.  And the term is probably still used, although the near universal use of ISO shipping containers has cut back considerably on break-bulk loading.

Interestingly, in transportation school they taught us all about securing cargo for land movement (which was basically concerned with longitudinal and lateral cargo movement), air movement (in which we also had to be concerned with vertical movement in addition to the other two), and ocean transport (which was all three axes ("axes" is the plural of "axis") plus all three in a circular motion, which meant six axes of possible movement to restrain).

Properly secured cargo on scale model flatcars and gondola cars isn't something most railroad modelers concern themselves with, but it's something an experienced transporter will spot in a heartbeat.

During a REFORGER exercise in Germany two of us were sent to observe and monitor a unit loading their equipment onto German railcars.  They were using a crane to lift 20-foot containers.  I looked at the lines lifting the containers, three cables and one chain (ran out of cable?) hooked to the container, told the Lieutenant in charge that the chain wasn't strong enough and was going to break.  He scoffed, said it was a 25,000-pound capacity chain (but I knew from experience and training that it only had maybe 8,000 pounds of tensile strength due to the angle of connection).  It broke, the container dropped about ten feet.  I looked at him shook my head, and walked away.  His problem, not mine.  At least he knew better than to have anyone stationed underneath the container.  Given half a chance, regardless of the mode of transport, improperly secured cargo will kill you.
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Vandibe
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Joined: 20 Mar 2017, 21:57

11 Nov 2017, 03:51 #14

I’m still active duty Navy. We are NOT a sensitive crowd. Never used the term Spanish windlass. Navy’s been using chains with hooks on one end and clamps on the other that you run the chain through, then when you clamp it down it draws the whole rig right. The clamp has a kind of hook that’s inserted into padeyes in the deck. Padeyes are recessed holes shaped to hold the hook. Been using that system since WWII when amphibious transport came into its own.

To bring this back to the New Haven, I’m trying to pull together a WWII freight with DL-109 power. Maybe something like a war special, running to or from Fore River. Found a video on you tube that shows war material being loaded and shipped. “Trains and Railroads: Loaded for War 1944”. The soldiers are using ridiculously flimsy wire in the Spanish windlass form described above and very simple wood dunnage nailed into the deck of the flat car. No way that stuff would stop a tank or tank destroyer if they hit the brakes. Saw one picture online of Willy’s jeeps literally stacked on top of each other - nothing separating the layers. No dunnage or straps used that I️ could see. I️ guess why bother, they are just going to get shot up anyhow, so what’s a few songs. Also, PRR used some F22 (?) flats to transport battleship barrels. 2 cars per barrel. I’ve never seen good detailed pictures, but they used some sort of sliding bolster on one flat car deck that the barrel slid back and forth on as the car turned. Those PRR flats would have been common on the New Haven coming and going from Fore River. I️ assume, but have no evidence, that big gun cruisers had their gun barrels transported the same way. Fore River built half the cruisers we and allies used in WWII, not to mention thousands of other ships, so war freight had to be common. Bet there where some interesting late night loads. But, with war restrictions, there are precious few photos out there.

Eric
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Statkowski
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Joined: 05 Mar 2003, 09:39

11 Nov 2017, 04:24 #15

Vandibe wrote: The soldiers are using ridiculously flimsy wire in the Spanish windlass form described above and very simple wood dunnage nailed into the deck of the flat car. No way that stuff would stop a tank or tank destroyer if they hit the brakes. 

Eric
Rest assured that the items shown in the film were secured according to A.A.R. loading specifications.  Restraint requirements for rail shipments (two axes) versus nautical shipments (six axes) are significantly different.  Far more restraint needed in all directions for ocean shipments, including having a supercargo check each individual restraint at least once or twice a day.

For ocean shipments, locomotives (diesel or steam) were routinely shipped as deck-mounted cargo (too big to fit through a hatch, or to move around belowdecks.  For the diesels, their trucks were, on occasion, shipped separately, stowed in either the Upper Tween Deck or Lower Tween Deck.  Heard a sea tale concerning a runaway truck belowdeck.  Tiedowns got loose, one gave way (leading to the others failing, also).  Ended up with a truck assembly (traction motors included) rolling around the hold while the ship rolled in a storm.  Bottom line?  The truck ended up getting a good running start on one side of the hold, went all the way across, picking up momentum along the way, and punched a hole in the hull above the water line and exited the ship.  Not sure, but it could have been a Farrell Lines vessel.
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rsullivan
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Joined: 14 Dec 2016, 20:36

27 Nov 2017, 17:21 #16

Mr. Eric. Sorry it took a while to track down what I could find about gun barrel shipments. The article in Shoreliner, vol. 9, iss. 4, by Mr. C.A. Brown titled "New Haven Connections - For River Railroad" addresses the large vessels built at the shipyard. Not only heavy cruisers, but also the aircraft carriers "Wasp" and "Lexington" were launched from that shipyard. The article says the railroad is able to handle anything since "Such huge ships require large, heavy componenents and much raw material which the railroads are best suited to transport." The componenets would definately include gun barrels. Shoreliner, vol. 24, iss 3, has a picture of New Haven Gun Car #7900 on page 11. It has two span-bolster-connected truck pairs of really heavy duty archbar trucks. Pages 15 and 16 describe the Gun Car 790 (later 40000 and 4000) as "An educated guess as to its acquisition, there was a great flurry of ship building of the later dreadnought type battle ships at Fore River shipyard amongst other New England locations. The 14" naval rifles these new ships were equipped with would need a conveyance to deliver them to the shipyards." I haven't found out the disposition or date for the car. Along The Line issues of April 1928 and November 1928 carried articles on the movement of two large guns. These are reprinted in Mr. Ronald Hall's & Mr. Robert Wuchert, Jr.'s Memories of the New Haven Vol. 2 (1985). The first article describes the movement of a huge coastal defense gun for the Panama Canal Zone which "The shipment was in three sections, of a totsl weight of approximately 1,000,000 pounds." The picture below show the gun barrel "...mounted on a special flat car, owned by the Government, which has two sets of eight-wheels trucks, or sixteen wheels in all, in order to distribute the weight. ... Because of the unusual weight of the shipment, the special Government flat-car and gun together weighed 668,000 pounds, ..." This was in the April 1928 issue of Along The Line
Scan_20171127.jpg
This is the large coastal defense gun on New Haven carfloat #68 getting ready to be towed by Transfer No. 21 to the Brooklyn Navy Yard for loading and shipment to the Panama Canal Zone.


The second picture is of "The heaviest single load that ever passed over our line was a big United States 14-inch Gun, Railway Mount, which we received at Worchester...The shipment outweighed by approximately 300,000 pounds the heaviest previous load ever shipped over the New Haven Railroad, its total weight being 730,000 lbs." This is the only shipment sent in the complete configuration, the earlier ones were divided into two or more shipments each. It describes the car as "The special railway carriage on which the gun is mounted was 126 feet in lenght, with fourteen pairs of wheels, two pairs of eight-wheel trucks at one end, and two pairs of six-wheel trucks at the other." This was in the November 1928 issue of Along The Line.

Scan_20171127 (2).jpg
This is the railway mount 14-inch gun from the Watertown Arsenal shipped completely assembled from Worchester to the the Lehigh & Hudson RR at Maybrook for shipment to Aberdeen, Maryland (probably the Aberdeen Proving Ground).
That's all I found on ordinance shipments. Hope this helps you out.
Richard H. Sullivan, Jr.  memebr #3967
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Vandibe
Member
Joined: 20 Mar 2017, 21:57

27 Nov 2017, 18:40 #17

Oh that’s fantastic! Thank you for finding those resources. Unfortunately the Along The Lines are not digitized, and so are invisible to The Google. The first photo is what I believed would exist. Since a 14” is smaller than a 16” (that’s college level math) it makes sense the breach mechanism would travel with it. And that’s a pretty good photo, so enough detail to at least start tinkering with a plan. Now I have another project!

Even more interesting, the second picture is of a naval gun mounted to be fired from a rail car. This is a M1920, of which only 4 were built. I’m more familiar with the previous model of this gun, one of which is on display with rail chassis at the Washington Navy Yard in DC.

Just goes to show, you can pretty much make a case for ANYTHING to be modeled in be New Haven. Thank you again Mr Sullivan, very cool.

Eric
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rsullivan
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Joined: 14 Dec 2016, 20:36

27 Nov 2017, 21:06 #18

Mr. Eric. I went back and reread the Along The Line article about the first gun that went to the Panama Canal Zone to find the caliber. I believe the picture shows the barrel of one of the four 14-inch, M1920MII on Railway Mount, M1920 Gun that were built. Two went to the Panama Canal Zone and the other two at Fort MacArthur in San Pedro, Los Angeles, California. The first was 'packaged' for shipment by sea on the U.S. Transport "Sirius" in three pieces. All three were in the same train. "The gun mount, which ran on its own wheels, for the gun is for service in "mobile" coast defense, weighed in at 378,000 pounds. In the make-up of the trains in which the shipment was hauled from Worchester to Bay Ridge, the gun itself was placed near the head of the train, the gun mount at the rear, and somewhere in between the additional car containing the accessories." (I'll bet there were helper engines on that move over the Hell Gate Bridge! [opinion]) The only other indication on the caliber was the final line. "The gun is capable of firing one-ton shells a distance of 29 miles." April 1928 issue Along The  Line found on page 41 of Memories of the New Haven, Vol 2. The two M1920 Railway Mount Guns for the Canal Zone defense could travel from coast to coast in two hours over the Panama Canal Railway. Here is a diagram of the M1920 which shows the final assembly of the first gun (probably), and the configuration of the second gun pictured that was shipped completely assembled. More info on the M1920 can be found at http://military.wikia.com/wiki/14-inch_ ... ailway_gun. The deployment and cross country travel time of two-hours are found in the December 1934 issue of Popular Mechanics Magazine, vol. 62., no. 6, in the main section on pages 844 and 845, at https://books.google.com/books?id=yt8DA ... %22&f=true. They could load the M1920 onto the Railway Mount carriage, travel across country and remount it on the concrete firing emplacement. It looks like the trucks are removed from the Railway Mount and pulled onto the rails to the front and rear of the gun emplacement pad. The Advertising Section was neat to read (as was the whole magazine) with page 31A showing Learn Photo-Engraving from the Aurora School of Photo-Engraving in Aurora, Missouri.
NH RR Big Gun Transport pic 3.jpeg
Side elevation drawing of the M1920 Railway Mount Gun used in coastal defense in the Panama Canal Zone and Fort MacArthur, California.
Side elevation drawing of the M1920 Railway Mount Gun used in coastal defense in the Panama Canal Zone and Fort MacArthur, California.
As you can see in the drawing, the truck and wheel configuration matches the ones described in the Along The Lines, November 1928, article reprinted in Memories of the New Haven, Vol. 2, page 42. The drawing also has some components on top above where the gun elevation pivot is that match those on top of the gun barrel in the first picture on New Haven carfloat 68. That is another reason I used to support my conclusion that they were both M1920 Railway Mount Guns.
Richard H. Sullivan, Jr.  member #3967
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NH746EJO
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Joined: 25 Nov 2007, 00:18

28 Nov 2017, 18:06 #19

For a good photo and discussion of a 16 inch naval gun being transported from Watertown Arsenal near Boston to Fort Church near Newport go to my post of February 16, 2013 -- it can be found by typing in Naval Gun Movements in the search this forum box on the first discussion page.
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Jim Vaitkunas
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Joined: 09 Aug 2009, 15:41

28 Nov 2017, 18:58 #20

Track gauge for the Panama Railroad on which those guns for Panama rode was 5 feet.  The current Panama Canal RR track gauge is standard gauge. 
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