The E haplogroups among the Khoe-San seems to be derived from two sources: ultimately Cushitic pastoralists carrying the M293 lineage (sub-lineage of E-V1515, a Z830/Natufian lineage) and Bantu agriculturalists carrying the M2 lineage. The M2 in Khoisan is probably E-M191/P86, a Bantu marker from Central and Southern Africa, in which almost all are also positive for P252/U174. Bantu-speaking South Africans (89/343) tested 25.9% positive and Khoe-San speaking South Africans tested 7.7% (14/183) positive for this SNP.
The M293 in Khoe matches with the autosomal study on Khoe showing them to have a significant infusion of East African pastoralist genes ultimately from the Middle East. It was discovered before E-Z830, being announced in Henn 2008, which associated it with the spread of pastoralism from East Africa into Southern Africa. So far high levels have been found in specific ethnic groups in Tanzania and Southern Africa. Highest were the Datooga (43%), Khwe (Kxoe) (31%), Burunge (28%), and Sandawe peoples (24%). Henn (2008) in their study also found two Bantu-speaking Kenyan males with the M293 mutation.
Other E-M215 subclades are rare in Southern Africa. The authors state "Without information about M293 in the Maasai, Hema, and other populations in Kenya, Sudan, and Ethiopia, we cannot pinpoint the precise geographic source of M293 with greater confidence. However, the available evidence points to present-day Tanzania as an early and important geographic locus of M293 evolution.". They also say that "M293 is only found in sub-Saharan Africa, indicating a separate phylogenetic history for M35.1 * (former) samples further north"."
Group III is less frequent in the
Khoisan (28.2%), who share with Ethiopians only the
M35 haplotype 19 (10.3%). Conversely, the M2 com-
ponent, which occurs at a frequency of 17.9% in the
Khoisan, is virtually absent in the Ethiopians.
1. Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y-Chromosome Phylogeny
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a ... 9707613019
2. Y-chromosomal evidence of a pastoralist migration through Tanzania to southern Africa
3. Development of a single base extension method to resolve Y chromosome haplogroups in sub-Saharan African populations
https://investigativegenetics.biomedcen ... 1-2223-1-6