http://www.bentham.org/open/tocpj/artic ... 7TOCPJ.pdf
The Open Chemical Physics Journal, 2009, 2, 7-31
Active Thermitic Material Discovered in Dust from the 9/11 World Trade
Niels H. Harrit, Jeffrey Farrer, Steven E. Jones, Kevin R. Ryan, Frank M. Legge,
Daniel Farnsworth, Gregg Roberts, James R. Gourley and Bradley R. Larsen
Interview YouTube Link;
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HFM_36jv ... r_embedded
Please note that the following transcript is for the most part complete, but does exclude unnecessary duplication, as well
as the many occurrences of natural pauses and re-phrasings.
It is a painstaking process so please forgive any errors or omissions.
Physicist, Dr. Steven Jones
: "My name is Steven Jones, a physicist.
I received my Ph.D in physics from Vanderbilt University in 1978 so I have been at this for over 30 years,
studying various subjects. I like to study those things that have an impact on society wherever I can. Such as
fusion energy. That has been my 'bread and butter' for many years. In fact I began that probably in 1979, my research into fusion. Various kinds of fusion, Starting with hot fusion, then muon-catalyzed fusion, metal-catalyzed fusion, and I am still very interested in alternative energy methods. I have published papers in SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, which was a paper about muon-catalyzed fusion. I've published several papers in NATURE, a British publication. I've published in PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS and so I have some awareness of the importance of peer review. And I can say in all honesty that my first paper on 9/11 research met with considerable flak and was reviewed, peer-reviewed, very heavily actually. Before publication, it was thoroughly peer-reviewd. One of those peer reviews happened when I spoke at the Utah Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters in April of 2007. I have published over 50 peer-reviewed papers in my career. Now, with regard to 9/11 research, this began for me in the spring of 2005, when I heard a speaker saying that based on her analysis, she said this rather bold statement to a large group of people. She was speaking about something entirely different, but she paused and she said; "now if you think those WTC Towers came down just because they were hit by airplanes, you have some major surprises a head of you." And this huge audience, it must have been about 700 people, burst out into applause. I was one of those who was not applauding because I did not know what she was talking about. But the next day or two, I got on the Internet and plunged into my study of WTC 7 and the anomalous events of 9/11.
Dr. Farrer has covered a number of things. I want to emphasize a few other points. Our study of both the spheres, but particularly the actively thermitic red material we discovered in the dust from 9/11. This is discussed in our paper in the OPEN CHEMICAL PHYSICS JOURNAL published in April of 2009 and I would encourage a careful reading of this paper. We put a lot of work into this peer-reviewed publication. I would like to talk first-of-all about the chain of custody for the samples that we received. I would like to mention that in this paper we studied four separate samples in detail. Four separately connected dust samples. I received samples from several people and Dr. Farrer received samples directly from at least two of these collectors. I think three of the collectors, separately. So it is not like someone could go to these collectors. I have heard this argument that somehow perhaps someone somehow 'seeded' these samples with nano-thermite. Well ya folks, it is very difficult to create this stuff. I do not know how to make this stuff. Kevin Ryan, a chemist, is trying to make this nano-thermite but its not easy. We do have descriptions from the Livermore National Laboratory in particular, of how they fabricated this material. But to fabricate it, is not so easy. First of all, the iron oxide grains are uniform and approximately 100 nano-meters across. That is very tiny. Much smaller than a human hair. The aluminum occurs in plates that are about 40 nano-meters across. I have no idea how to make those. This is high tech material and it is embedded in a carbon-rich matrix.
I have also heard the argument that perhaps the falling buildings just generated this nano-thermite? No. As an experimental physicist, I actually took some dust from buildings that were destroyed by controlled demolition. a bank in Salt Lake City and a hotel in Las Vegas. People collected the dust and sent those in to our laboratory. We looked into the dust and believe it or not, there were no red/gray chips. It relates to the 2nd law of thermodynamics but I won't go into that detailed argument. I will just say, if you imagine these chips were are highly active. It is like a match head. And say you have the ingredients of a match head in a building, sulphur, carbon, whatever else they put in a match head, and then the thing falls. And you find little match head ingredients from a building falling? No. It has to do with under chaotic circumstances, things go downhill, not uphill. It is the 2nd law of thermodynamics.
I have to talk to students about this. Excuse my impatience. The 2nd law of thermodynamics has to do with increasing entropy and disorder, not order. These red/gray materials have very orderly sheets containing aluminum, these platelets and these grains containing the iron oxide. Again, of uniform size, very orderly. Furthermore, if it is from a collapsing building, where does all this carbon come from for the matrix? It is just mind boggling. A colleague of mine asked various nano scientists if they thought a falling building could create this material? Which I thought was great because he got them to consider our study, but 100% of these contacted nano-scientists said "no". There is no way that a falling building can create this sophisticated material that we report in our paper.
Now, back to the chain of custody. So it is not from collapsing buildings. It did come from the dust of the WTC.
As I said, samples were sent separately to Dr. Farrer and myself. These samples all showed the same red/gray material. A separate sample was sent to a scientist, Mark Basile working in New England and he also sees the same active red/gray material. I have to say one thing while I am discussing the efforts by Mark Basile. He was the first one to ignite a red/gra chip and observe the spheres, the tiny iron-rich spheres in the residue after the red/gray chip is ignited. And so I think it is important to give him credit for that observation and we looked in our residues from the red/gray chips and we also found these spheres. I would just like to say that was found independently, and first, by Mark Basile.
Now, the chain of custody. The earliest collected sample came from Frank Delessio. He provided a videotaped testimony about how he collected this dust. Frank Delessio was in Manhattan on the morning of 9/11. He was present when the Towers collapsed. He was over by Brooklyn Bridge, the Manhattan side. And he reported that the dust was falling, it was collecting on the ground and he picked up a sample. He thought this was significant so he save it. He put it in his pocket and went over to a friend of his by the name of Tom Breidenbach and they decided to save this souvenir of the World Trade Center tragedy. Both of their testimonies about this sample are recorded. Frank Delessio collected the sample about ten minutes after the collapse of the 2nd Tower, the North Tower. He saw the Tower fall. He saw the dust being generated. He sept up a handful of dust from the rail of a pedestrian walkway at the end of the Brooklyn Bridge on the Manhattan side. And then this sample was saved and a portion of it was sent to me. I asked all of the collectors as they sent me a portion, to retain a portion of the World Trade Center dust so that when we have this investigation, which we are demanding, that there will samples in the hands of the actual collectors. That the investigators can then obtain, and they will find the red/gray chips in this material, because we have already sampled the other portion. So this sample was collected ten minutes after the collapse of the Tower. Long before any cleanup operations began and therefore, it is impossible for cleanup or steel cutting operations at Ground Zero to have contaminated these samples. They were collected long before these cleanup operations began. Similarly, the 2nd sample comes from Mr. Steven White of New York City. It was collected on the morning of September 12th, the day after and again, this would not be contaminated by cleanup operations which began later. He found a layer of dust about an inch thick on a stack of folded laundry near a window that had been left open in his apartment. Clearly the open window had allowed an amount of dust to enter the room and cover the laundry. He saved some of this dust again and on Feb.2, 2008, he sent a sample to me for analysis. The 3rd sample was collected from an apartment building at 16 Hudson St. by Mr. Jody Intermont in the afternoon about 2 p.m. on the 12th of September. Two small samples of this dust were simultaneously sent to myself and Kevin Ryan in 2008 on Feb.2. Mr. Intermont signed an affidavit accompanying each of these samples, verifying that he had personally collected the sample which was now split and he gives permission to use his name in conjunction with both of these samples. So the chain of custody was direct from the collector to the scientist and a separate sample went to Kevin Ryan. Let me read the signed affidavit from Mr. Intermont. "This dust which came from the collapsed World Trade Center Towers, was collected from my loft at the corner of Reed St. and Hudson St. on September 12, 2001. So that was our 3rd sample.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W6fpGIIE ... r_embedded
"the 4th sample was collected by Janette MacKinlay in her 4th floor apartment on Cedar St. at Liberty St. in New York City. This is a very interesting sample because Janette's apartment was just across the street the World trade Center Plaza. As the South Tower (WTC 2) collapsed, she was in her apartment and the force of the collapse and the debris blowing from it across the street broke the windows of her apartment and the dust flowed in. We actually have photographs of the interior of Janette MacKinlay's apartment with this layer of dust everywhere. Now this is a very important sample because it was collected immediately as the tower was falling. I should mention that Janette MacKinlay, like so many others who breathed in this dust, this toxic World Trade Center dust--she has become very very sick. Extremely ill. And many have died from this. And this has been attributed to the toxicity of this dust which according to scientists, had an alkalinity equivalent to that of liquid Drano. There was also asbestos in the dust and other nasty things like mercury. Let me talk a little about the toxicity of the dust having discussed now the chain of custody for each of these samples, which is clean and we would be glad to testify in court about these samples. And the independence of them and the fact that they were not, and really could not, have been seeded. I resent that accusation. As if I knew how to make the stuff yo begin with or would have a proclivity to seed scientific samples. No! We are behaving as scientists and proceeding in a scientific manner as we study this dust.
With regard to the World Trade Center dust sample collected by Janette MacKinlay, she told me that she had a sense that this dust could be usable in an art of hers, a display. She is an artist and as my first report came out with regard to the World Trade Center destruction, and the anomalies, and my questions about the Official Story.... Janette read that report and she contacted me that she had a sample of the dust and would I like to look at it?
Of course I said I would. I actually travelled to California to visit Janette MacKinlay and with other scientists present, I collected a sample of the World Trade Center dust. Subsequently, dust samples from Janette MacKinlay were sent directly to Dr. Farrer and to Kevin Ryan. All of us have seen these red/gray chips in this World Trade Center dust.
So, the chain of custody is clean and the science is very sound, I believe, and has been published, and not refuted, so we feel we are on very solid ground with these studies.
I don't know that I need to repeat what Dr. Farrer has described very adequately and very well. So, I would like to emphasize certain conclusions that we determined from our study of the WTC dust and this red material that Dr. Farrer has discussed so very adequately. I would like to say before proceeding that Dr. Farrer was a key in analyzing this red/gray material. And his expertise with both the scanning electron microscope and the transmission electron microscope proved to be invaluable in the study. Okay, significant conclusions regarding this red/gray material that we found in the dust. The primary elements in the red material are aluminum, iron oxide, as well as silicon and carbon. I would like to say that the silicon first confused me when I saw it in this red material because it is not needed in thermite. In thermite, all you need is a fuel, aluminum and a metal oxide such as iron oxide. So the oxygen goes from the iron oxide to the aluminum with the release of an enormous amount of energy and this also results in the production of molten iron. As you have this molten iron being formed explosively it will form droplets in the air. We do see many iron-rich droplets both in the WTC dust and in the residue, the ash from burning these red/gray chips.
The question about the silicon. Why is that present? I think it was Kevin Ryan who pointed out to me that as nano-thermite is being made, now this is thermite with very tiny constituents of iron oxide and aluminum. Now when nano-thermite is made, silicon is typically involved in the mix. It becomes part of the matrix. When the sol-gel method is used for example, which is described in detail in the literature from the defense laboratories such as Livermore. These guys at the defense laboratories are very excited about nano-thermite because of its applications for explosives and so on. They do say that all the applications they will not go into. I remember at least one of the National Lab papers discussing the fact that nano-thermite can be used for demolition, controlled demolition, so I thought that was interesting. At least for igniting the standard explosives such as CH4.
The iron oxide appears in fasted grains, approximately 100 nano-meters across as Dr. Farrer described. The aluminum appears in thin platelets about 40 nano-meters thick. It is the small size of the particles involved in this material that allow us to characterize it as "nano-thermite". In ordinary thermite, the particle size is much larger and ordinary thermite is an incendiary. Whereas the particle size becomes smaller and smaller, it can become explosive. Super thermite it is sometimes called.
Dr. Farrer found that the iron and oxygen are in a phase that is Fe2 O3. Dr. Farrer conducted studies in the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and found that the material ignites, reacts vigorously at a temperature of approximately 430 C, consistent in each sample. This is approximately the temperature at which nano-thermite ignited in a study published by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Also the narrowness of the heat trace, the DSC trace, indicates that a very rapid reaction has occurred. Both in the study with known nano-thermite and in the study with the red material as found in the WTC dust. We found that the spheroids that are rich in iron produced by the DSC test, that is, by the ignition of the red material in the DSC, these have a signature that is rich in iron but not enough oxygen to make even FeO. So that indicates to us that the iron has been reduced which again is a signature for the thermite reaction. So the formation of the spheres which implies a very high temperature, over 1400 C and the reduction of the iron oxide to an iron-rich phase indicates that a thermitic reaction has occurred and therefore we are able to call this material, an active thermitic material. Both from our DSC studies and from the results from the electron microscopes. Let us not forget that the red material also contains a significant amount of carbon and the formulation of nano-thermite as described by National Laboratory publications also implies the presence of carbon, very typically. The organic is used with nano-thermite in order to produce gas, that is a very high pressure gas that makes the nano-thermite an explosive. So all these results are consistent with the presence of a pyrotechnic or explosive in the WTC dust, in large quantities that really should not be present in an office building in downtown New York City.
We need some kind of investigation that will take the blinders off, and say we are not just going to look at fires. We will consider the possibility of explosives, and we will look for explosive residues, as we have done on our own initiative in the WTC dust. And on the steel that Dr. Farrer mentioned. We need an investigation that will have the power to subpoena these samples collected by Prof. Barnett and then we will look at the residues that you can see in photographs, this swiss cheese steel from the WTC 7 and from the Towers. And determine if this residue has aluminum entrained in it as we expect from the use of thermite. This is the residue on the surface. This grayish residue that you can see. I predict that aluminum will be found entrained in that residue on the surface. Thermite can be made from other combinations but one would expect aluminum as the most readily available fuel for this type of high energy reaction that would result in the sulphidation and even evaporation of steel because the temperatures can be reached by thermite.
In conclusion, I strongly support a thorough and fully-funded investigation of the events and people involved in 9/11. Allow people to come forward and testify of what they have heard about 9/11 from various sources. We need this investigation. Right now there is in effect, a dark cloud hanging over America because of these unanswered questions. It would be better to face this head on and allow a thorough investigation and perform this investigation in such a way as to get at some answers and so we need this investigation and I think that is all I have to say about that today.
Please feel free to quote from this transcript.
Last Edited November 14, 2010 to correct improper name spellings