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Sanguo Guideline

SlickSlicer
Han's Unifier
Joined: April 29th, 2007, 10:53 pm

June 29th, 2007, 6:17 am #1

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[center][size=7]Part 1-Table of Contents[/center][/size]
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[center]Part 2-Basic Information on the Three Kingdoms Period
Part 3-Cultural Outcomes
Part 4-Important Warlords of the Late-Han
Part 5-Some differences between the novel and history
Part 6-Barbarians of the Period
Part 7-Ideas for Other Sections
Part 8-Credits[/center]

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[center][size=7]Part 2-Basic Information[/center][/size]
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[img]http://img183.imageshack.us/img183/9696/threekingdomsmapkh7.png[/img]
~A map of the Three Kingdoms at the height of the period.

The Three Kingdoms (Sangoku) period officially started when the Last Han Emperor, Emperor Xian, abdicated his throne. Immediately following this, the successor to the warlord Cao Cao, Cao Pi, proclaimed himself to be the Emperor of Wei. At this point in time the lands belonging to the former Han Empire had, for the most part, been divided between the Cao, Liu and Sun clans. Some of the Han's former territories, such as various territories in the northeast and Korea, were under the control of the warlord Gongsun Yuan. Others were being assailed by barbarians living on the northern frontier of China or within China itself. In time, however, the Gongsun clan would be defeated by Sima Yi (a vassal of the Caos) and the different barbarian tribes would be somewhat pacified by either the Cao, Liu or Sun clans.

Not long after Cao Pi had made himself to be the Emperor of Wei, Liu Bei decided to declare himself the Emperor of his own southwestern kingdom. Claiming descent from the Liu family that ruled the Han Empire, Liu Bei saw himself as a successor to the Han dynasty, though his kingdom was called 'Shu-Han' in later times [as opposed to just 'Han'] because of its' geographical location. Liu Bei held territories in Jing province, which was strategically located in Central China, and also in Yi province, which was located in the Southwest of China. The kingdom of Wei, founded by Cao Pi, excercised control over Northern China. Finally, to the southeast, the Sun clan held power.

Liu Bei would go on to invade and conquer Hanzhong, an important border territory that had been previously under the control of Wei. In Jing, however, relations between Guan Yu (one of Liu Bei's most prominent officers, and the guardian of Shu-Han's territories in Jing) and the kingdom of Wu began to sour. When Guan Yu went to attack the Cao family's possessions in Jing, Lu Meng (a general of Sun Quan's) would use Guan Yu's raid of a Wu supply depot as a pretext for invasion. Quite swiftly, Sun Quan's forces thus attacked their former allies, Shu-Han, and took control of Liu Bei's lands in Jing. Angry at this betrayal, Liu Bei personally commanded a campaign to take back what had been lost, but the Wu general Lu Xun managed to decisively beat Liu Bei at the Battle of Yiling.

After Liu Bei died, Liu Chan would become the new sovereign of Han. Zhuge Liang would take care of most of the military ventures of the Shu state, however, and launch several northern campaigns against the Kingdom of Wei. At the same time, despite the Sun clan's former betrayal, Shu-Han and the Sun clan would re-affirm their alliance with one another. While Zhuge Liang's Northern Campaigns were going on, Sun Quan, the head of the Sun clan of the Southeast, proclaimed himself to be the Emperor of his own kingdom, Wu. Wu and Wei would themselves fight with one another frequently. From AD 222-223, Cao Pi launched an unsuccessful invasion against Wu. Before and after Sun Quan proclaimed himself Emperor, meanwhile, Sun Quan would try, albeit unsuccessfully, to attack Hefei (a fortress, and later a city, that belonged to Wei).

In AD 234, Zhuge Liang died from natural causes. He had won many battles against Wei during his Northern Campaigns, but he had failed to decisively beat Wei or leave a dent in Wei's defenses in the northwest. Zhuge Liang was a master of ambuscades, and would frequently lure his enemy out to the field and beat them there. But Cao Zhen and Sima Yi put up a stalwart defense against his invasions and, most of the time, Zhuge Liang was forced to retreat from his campaigns due to lack of supplies or other problems. In Shu-Han, the ambitious commander Jiang Wei took over for Zhuge Liang as Shu-Han's chief military officer. Jiang Wei had originally been a vassal of Wei, but he had defected to Shu and risen through the ranks of that kingdom quickly. He would follow in Zhuge Liang's footsteps by launching several Northern Campaigns against Wei. These, however, would be even more unsuccessful, and at least one of Jiang Wei's losses would seriously damage the state of Shu. His most famous defeat was probably at the Battle of Duan Gu.

Contrary to popular belief, Wu was actively pursuing expansion during the Three Kingdoms as well. Besides taking over the province of Jiao from the Shi clan (originally controlled by Shi Xie, although Sun Quan subjugated it when Xie died), the Zizhi Tongjian records that Sun Quan sent expeditions out to take over the barbarian lands of Yizhou and Tanzhou (it is unclear where these places are today, but historians speculate that Yizhou is Taiwan and Tanzhou may be one of the Ryukyu Islands). The invasions of these two places failed. The Gongsun family of Northeast China and Korea had previously been allies with Wei, but when Gongsun Yuan announced his independence, Sun Quan insisted (against the advice of ministers of the Wu court like Zhang Zhao) on trying to do everything he could to make Gongsun Yuan an ally. Sima Yi eventually quashed Gongsun Yuan's rebellion, though, and thus brought new territories into the Wei fold. The acquisition of several lands in Korea also enabled Wei to conduct diplomacy with the Queen of Japan, Himiko.

Following several unsuccessful invasions against Wei, Jiang Wei changed the defense strategies in Shu and launched another invasion. This was, once more, a failure. Wei seized the momentum of their victory to begin their own counter-invasion of Shu. Together, the Wei generals Deng Ai and Zhong Hui attacked the beleagured Shu Empire. Wu tried to help its allies, but needed to first deal with a rebellion in their southwestern territories (including what was probably a part of modern-day Northern Vietnam). Liu Shan, Shu's sovereign, decided to surrender to Wei in AD 263. Wei, however, did not last much longer itself. Internal turmoil and weak Emperors crippled the kingdom. The Sima family started using the Wei Emperors as puppets and Sima Yan (grandchild of the aforementioned Wei officer, Sima Yi) finally outright usurped power from Wei. [Sima] Yan declared himself Emperor of Jin (his own kingdom), and eventually conquered Wu.

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[center][size=7]Part 3-Cultural Outcomes of the Late-Han & 3K Periods[/center][/size]
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The Late-Han and Three Kingdoms eras of Chinese History were largely dominated by internecine warfare. However, there were a few important political and cultural upheavels during and immediately following this epoch in Chinese history. They will be listed below.

Spread of Taoism: Radical religious groups like the Yellow Scarves and 5 Pecks of Rice sect gained followers during this period. Commoners were especially recruited by the fanatical Yellow Scarves during the Yellow Turban Rebellion. Even after that rebellion was quashed, though, leaders like Zhang Lu helped spread Taoism.

Spread of Buddhism: Buddhism was introduced to China from the Silk Road during the Han Dynasty. During the Late-Han period, a man named Zhai Rong was ordered by Tao Qian to transport grain from Guangling to Pengcheng. Instead, Zhai Rong sold the grain and used the funds he got to construct a giant Buddhist Temple in the South of China. During the Western Jin dynasty that came after the Three Kingdoms period, several aristocrats living in the North of China also built Buddhist temples.

However, while some aristocrats may have adopted Buddhism during the Late-Han and Three Kingdoms era, Buddhism was not a widespread religion until after the Three Kingdoms period. The fighting that occurred during the Late-Han, Three Kingdoms and Western Jin periods of Chinese history caused the lands formerly united by the Han dynasty to fragment. As a result, many barbarian tribes capitalized on the weakness of the Chinese people by invading and conquering large tracts of land in Northern China [during the late years of the Western Jin Dynasty]. These foreigners encouraged the spread of Buddhism, which caused a large number of peasants to convert. Later on, Buddhism also became commonplace in Southern China.

New City of Hefei-Hefei was an important strategical location throughout Chinese history. During the Three Kingdoms, it became an especially important base for the Kingdom of Wei. In order to make it more formidable against the armies of Wu, the Wei Empire built a new city in the region of Hefei that was closer to the city of Shouchun. The 'New City' was built in AD 230.

Inventions: One of the most prolific engineers of this time was a man named Ma Jun. In addition to re-inventing some sort of mechanical (though not magnetic) compass called the "South Pointing Horse," Ma Jun also created an upgraded version of the weaving loom, made an improved version of Zhuge Liang's Chu Ko Nu, and invented better tools for agriculture (for example, he made a wagon to help with irrigation). Ma Jun was from the Kingdom of Wei.

In Shu, the Prime Minister Zhuge Liang has been accredited for inventing the Chu Ko Nu. The Chu Ko Nu was a type of repeating crossbow that was used to devastating effect during Zhuge Liang's Northern Campaigns. Zhuge Liang also developed tools for his army called 'floating horses' during his 5th and final Northern Campaign. These were basically light rafts that could be used to carry supplies across rivers and streams more easily. In one of Zhuge Liang's other campaigns, he engineered another type of transportation vehicle that could be used on land. Rumors persist that Zhuge Liang also made the recipes for baozi and mantou (two Chinese foods), but these rumors are of dubious historical validity.

Barbarians: Non-Chinese people played an important role during, before and after the Three Kingdoms period. The weakness of the Chinese central government that took over following the Three Kingdoms Period (Jin) allowed several barbarian tribes to take over Northern China. After Cao Cao subjugated the Xiongnu, he allowed them to regroup and multiply. The Xiongnu later played a major role after the Three Kingdoms period. Changing their family name from Luanti to 'Liu' and claiming descent from the Han, they were one of the tribes who played a decisive role in destroying the Western Jin dynasty.

Various tribes later mixed with Chinese people and gradually became sinified themselves. Eventually, racial differences between these barbarian peoples and Chinese people became less obvious. The Xianbei and several southern tribes that existed during the three kingdoms period are no longer distinct groups today largely because of how these tribes were conquered, divided and mixed up during, before and after the Late-Han and Three Kingdoms periods.

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[center][size=7]Part 4-Important Warlords of the Late-Han[/center][/size]
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The Late-Han period of Chinese history began with the ascension of Emperor Liu Xiu and ended with the abdication of Emperor Xian. Towards the end of the Late-Han period, (specifically during the reigns of Han Emperors Ling, Shao and Xian), the Han Empire fragmented. Warlords began taking power for themselves and fighting amongst each other for control of the realm. The following are some warlords from the time. Most of them would be eventually defeated, which would allow the warlords from the Cao, Liu and Sun families to form Three Kingdoms.

[b]Gongsun Du[/b]: Gongsun Du, often called ‘Gongsun Du the Warlike,’ was the governor of Liaodong during the Late-Han era. When Dong Zhuo took over the capital, Gongsun Du was authorized to launch an invasion of Korea. In AD 204, Gongsun Du died and was succeeded by his son, Gongsun Kang. The Gongsun family would hold parts of Korea and parts of Northeastern China for many years. In AD 238, however, one of Gongsun Du’s descendants, Gongsun Yuan, would be defeated by the Wei Empire, which would subsequently take over the Gongsun family's domain.

Despite his warlike nature, Gongsun Du was said to have been honored abroad. The Zizhi Tongjian states, “Gongsun Du’s authority was respected across the seas. Many people fled to him to escape the disorders of China proper, including Guan Ning, Bing Yuan and Wang Lie, all of whom hailed from Beihai.” Incidentally, Gongsun Du was probably not related to Gongsun Zan.

[color=336633][b]Gongsun Zan[/b][/color]: Gongsun Zan, styled Bogui, was the Magistrate of Bei Ping during the Later Han period. He was a renowned cavalry expert and was nicknamed General of Baima or General of the White Horses due to his cavalry containing all white horses. He served mainly on the Northern and Eastern frontiers of the Han, and fought against various foreign tribes. In 191 A.D. he enlisted as part of the Coalition against Dong Zhuo, who had seized power in Luo Yang. Gongsun Zan took this opportunity to expand his lands. That year, he also enlisted the future Shu Han general, Zhao Yun. Throughout the 190's he would fight constantly with Yuan Shao for control of Northern China. The first battle he fought with Yuan Shao would be the Battle of Jie Qiao. Here, Gongsun Zan was defeated. Yuan Shao and Gongsun Zan fought other battles, and eventually, Yuan Shao defeated Gongsun Zan for good at the Battle of Yijing. After this battle, Gongsun Zan and his family commited suicide in their burning estate.

[b][color=339996]Liu Biao[/color][/b]: During the time when Dong Zhuo had gained control of Luoyang, the Grand Administrator of Changsha, Sun Jian, decided to join Yuan Shu. On his way to Yuan Shu's base of Nanyang, Sun Jian killed two administrators (named Wang Rui and Zhang Zi) that had been appointed to govern the province of Jingzhou. To fill the power vaccuum that Sun Jian caused by slaying Wang Rui, the Han Empire gave Liu Biao an administrative position in Jingzhou. Liu Biao allied with Yuan Shao. Because Yuan Shao and Yuan Shu were at odds with one another, Yuan Shu sent Sun Jian to attack Liu Biao. Sun Jian was hit by an arrow in battle, though, and his troops were then routed by Jingzhou soldiers.

For several years afterwards, Liu Biao attended to problems within Jing. One problem was that, at one point, the Grand Administrator of Changsha, Zhang Xian, revolted against Liu Biao. Although Liu Biao's armies failed to decisively defeat Xian, by AD 200 Zhang Xian had died. Liu Biao swiftly launched an attack on Xian's heir and re-conquered Changsha. He then rapidly took over commanderies in Southern Jingzhou. When Yuan Shao and Cao Cao fought each other at Guandu, Liu Biao supported neither. Although slightly paranoid, Liu Biao did harbour Liu Bei and his retinue following Guandu's conclusion. He didn't trust Liu Bei much, but on at least one occassion Liu Bei raided Cao Cao's southern border from Jingzhou. Xiahou Dun, a general of Cao Cao's, responded to one of Liu Bei's raids in AD 207. Xiahou Dun, however, was caught in an ambush of Liu Bei's and was defeated at the Battle of Bowanpo. One year later, Liu Biao died. His heir, Liu Zong, surrendered much of Jingzhou to Cao Cao when the latter invaded Jingzhou.

[color=99CC00][b]Liu Zhang[/b][/color]: Liu Zhang was the youngest son of Liu Yan, the governor of Yizhou during the Han dynasty. In 194, following the deaths of his elder brothers and then his father, he succeeded his dad as heir. At one point in time, Liu Zhang had Zhang Lu's mother, brothers, and other family members executed on the pretext that Zhang Lu had been insubordinate. Liu Zhang invited Liu Bei into Yizhou to help him out against Zhang Lu and other adversaries in AD 211. Liu Bei soon betrayed Liu Zhang, however. Although generals under Liu Zhang, such as Zhang Ren, fought hard to defend their master, Liu Bei's forces eventually gained the upper hand. By AD 214, Liu Bei's army had surrounded Liu Zhang's capital at Chengdu. Jian Yong, one of Liu Bei's retainers, persuaded Liu Zhang to surrender.

Soon after surrendering his territory, Liu Bei sent Liu Zhang and his son to the western part of Jingzhou. After Sun Quan took over Jingzhou, Liu Zhang and one of his other sons were taken in by the forces of Sun Quan. Sun Quan, seeking to establish a claim to the rest of Liu Bei's territory, gave Liu Zhang the title of Governor of Yi Province. However, Wu made no further attempts to invade Liu Bei's territory or set up Liu Zhang as a ruler in Yizhou. Liu Zhang died shortly after being made a vassal of Sun Quan. His eldest son, Liu Xun, continued to serve in Shu whilst one of Liu Zhang's other sons served in Wu. More information on Liu Zhang can be read [url=http://z13.invisionfree.com/koeiwarriors/index.php?showtopic=6752&st=30&#last]here[/url].

[b][color=663300]Ma Chao[/color][/b]: Ma Chao was born in Maoling and was the son of Ma Teng. When Ma Teng allied with Cao Cao against Yuan Shang, Ma Chao led an army that helped defeat Guo Yuan (one of Yuan Shang's generals) at the Battle of Fen River. Ma Chao later succeeded his father as a warlord and kept up an uneasy truce with Cao Cao.

At the time that Cao Cao led his army against Zhang Lu, Ma Chao opposed him along with several other Western warlords. At the Battle of Tong Gate (AD 211), and then at Lantian (same year), Cao Cao defeated Ma Chao and his allies. Ma Chao fled from Cao Cao's forces and conquered a string of other cities, including the City of Ji. Though Ma Chao was able to ward off assaults on Ji led by Xiahou Yuan and other Wei generals, he was eventually forced out of the city by some of the former retainers of the previous governor of Ji, Wei Kang. In battle against these rebels at Li (AD 213), Ma Chao was decisively defeated and was forced to take up residence with Zhang Lu (the governor of Hanzhong). Ma Chao borrowed soldiers from Zhang Lu and tried to avenge his losses, but was trounced by Xiahou Yuan at the Battle of Qi Mountains. Finding it pointless to continue serving Zhang Lu, Ma Chao eventually went to join Liu Bei. He served Liu Bei until he died in AD 222.

[color=CC6600][b]Ma Teng[/b][/color]: Ma Teng was originally an officer of Keng Tu, who was one of the participants of the Liangzhou Rebellion (this information is according to [i]The Liangzhou Rebellion[/i] by G. Haloun). He allied with Han Sui and tried to seize Chang'an from Li Jue in AD 194. His forces were defeated, but Li Jue and Ma Teng came to peace terms. Nearly a decade later, in AD 202, Ma Teng struck up somewhat of an alliance with Cao Cao. He dispatched his son, Ma Chao, and one of his colonels, Pang De, to help Zhong Yao (an officer of Cao Cao's) fight the forces of Yuan Shang. Zhong Yao and the auxilary troops that Ma Teng had sent successfully defeated an army led by Guo Yuan (a general of Yuan Shang's) nearby the Fen River.

For reasons unknown, although possibly because Ma Teng had a falling out with Han Sui, Ma Teng eventually retired and allowed his son, Ma Chao, to take over his position. Cao Cao allowed him to stay in the city of Ye, but kept a close watch over him. Later, Ma Chao and Cao Cao came to grips with one another and fought. Ma Teng was executed a few months after Ma Chao's insurrection (probably merely because of Ma Chao's insurrection).

[color=CC9933][b]Meng Huo[/b][/color]: Meng Huo is most famous from the novel [i]Romance of the Three Kingdoms[/i]. Historically, many facts about his life are unclear, and some people even debate his existence. He is mentioned by name in the [i]Han Jin Chun Qiu[/i] and the [i]Hua Yang Guo Zhi[/i], which are in turn quoted by the famous commentator Pei Songzhi. These sources state that after Gao Ding and Yong Kai, two rebels of Southern Yizhou, were defeated by Zhuge Liang, Meng Huo gathered the remnants of Yong Kai's troops and opposed Shu-Han. He was defeated and captured alive by Zhuge Liang, but was released shortly afterwards. Then he was defeated, captured and released 7 times in quick succession. After he was captured the seventh time, Meng Huo submitted for good.

[color=CC0000][b]Sun Ce[/b][/color]: Sun Ce started his career out by serving Yuan Shu. He distinguished himself by defeating Lu Kang and conquering that clan's territory. He was, however, at one point ambushed and nearly killed by an enemy of Yuan Shu's named Zu Lang. When Sun Ce's uncle, Wu Jing, was struggling against the forces of Liu Yao, Sun Ce asked for some troops to assist. Now with a large command under him, Sun Ce managed to win battle after battle against Liu Yao's generals. By and by, Sun Ce's charisma attracted many more followers to him. Besides staving off Liu Yao, Sun Ce succeeded in trouncing Zu Lang (who eventually joined him). He also attacked and defeated White Tiger Yan (Yan Baihu) and Wang Lang.

Sun Ce decided to declare his independence from Yuan Shu when the latter proclaimed himself the Emperor of Zhong. Yuan Shu's farce of a dynasty lasted a very small amount of time, though, before Yuan Shu was overwhelmed by enemies. Following Yuan Shu's death, Sun Ce attacked and conquered the Grand Administrator of Lujiang, Liu Xun. The vanquished Grand Administrator petitioned Liu Biao and Huang Zu for assistance, and both of these two warlords would support him. Sun Ce's forces would fight a brief battle with the joint-forces of Huang She (Huang Zu's son) and Liu Xun. At the engagement's conclusion, his forces captured hundreds of troops and ships. After this great victory, Sun Ce succeeded in coaxing the Grand Administrator of Yuzhang, Hua Xin, to surrender to him. At the end of his life, Sun Ce had earned the nickname "The Little Conqueror," and controlled vast tracts of land in the southeast of the Han Empire. He was, however, wounded by retainers of a man named Xu Gong, who Sun Ce had previously killed. He died of his injuries in the year AD 200.

[color=CCCC00][b]Yuan Shang[/b][/color]: Yuan Shang was supposed to succeed Yuan Shao on the latter's death, as he was favored by Yuan Shao. However, he suffered from the greed of his elder brother, Yuan Tan, who thought himself to be the rightful heir to Yuan Shao (as Yuan Tan was Shao's first-born). Shang's general Guo Yuan initially enjoyed some success, but was eventually defeated by the joint-forces of Ma Teng's army (led by Ma Chao and Pang De) and Cao Cao's army (led by Zhong Yao) at the Battle of Fen River (Pingyang). This battle was also decisive, and resulted in the Xiongnu (who were stationed in Pingyang nearby where the battle took place) surrendering to Cao Cao. After this, Yuan Shang and Yuan Tan both opposed Cao Cao but were defeated after long battles with Cao Cao's forces. Cao Cao took the advice of his advisors and withdrew a bit from the Northeast in the hope that Yuan Shang and Yuan Tan would fight against each other. Long story short: They did, and it pretty much spelled devastation for both of them. Yuan Tan was eventually killed, and Yuan Shang could not withstand Cao Cao's army. He fled to the Wuhuan tribe lands, but the Wuhuan were defeated by Cao Cao at Mount Bolang. Finally he escaped with Yuan Xi to the lands of Gongsun Kang. Gongsun Kang sagaciously predicted that he'd enjoy good relations with Cao Cao if he had Yuan Shang and Yuan Xi executed. Sure enough, after he did that, Cao Cao honored Gongsun Kang and retreated from the Northeast, thus allowing Gongsun Kang to rule relatively independently.


[color=CCCC00][b]Yuan Shao[/b][/color]: Although related to Yuan Shu, Yuan Shao did not initially enjoy the same prestige as him. There is historical debate about his origin, and he may have either been Yuan Shu's cousin or his illegitimate half-brother. Regardless, Yuan Shao did not start out with a large land powerbase, but gained it through gathering good generals and advisors around him in the Northeast of Han China.

When Dong Zhuo took over the capital, Yuan Shao became the leader of the alliance against him. However, soon afterwards he started coming to grips with Gongsun Zan. He managed to persuade the warlord Han Fu that it was in Fu's best interests to surrender his land to Yuan Shao's army so that Gongsun Zan could be fought. He afterwards fought against Gongsun Zan at Jieqiao, other battles and finally at Yijing (where he destroyed Gongsun Zan completely). Yuan Shao also, at various points in his career, fought against the Black Mountain Bandits (whom Lu Bu helped him against) and other enemies. He managed to get on good terms with the Wuhuan tribe, which would later aid his sons. Eventually Yuan Shao opposed Cao Cao, but was defeated decisively at the Battles of Guandu and Cangting. He still held a considerable amount of territory in the Northeast, but his sons would struggle and eventually be obliterated by Cao Cao's forces.

[color=CCCC00][b]Yuan Tan[/b][/color]: Yuan Tan, styled Xiansi, was the eldest son of the warlord Yuan Shao and served as a military commander under his father during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. Yuan Shao favored his brother, Shang, as successor, but didn't make it clear that he wanted Shang to become his heir. Nevertheless, at first, Shang and Tan worked together to fight against Cao Cao. They were defeated at Liyang, after a long and arduous siege, but afterwards Cao Cao decided to withdraw from the region (in doing so he was following the suggestion of his minister Guo Jia, who believed that Yuan Tan and Yuan Shang would quarrel with another if they did not need to unite against a common enemy). Afterwards, Yuan Tan did war with Yuan Shang but was defeated on a few different occasions. Eventually he opted to ally with Cao Cao, and together his force and Cao Cao's drove Yuan Shang to take up residence with the Wuhuan. Soon the relationship between Yuan Shang's kingdom and Cao Cao's soured, though. Because of this, Cao Cao invaded Yuan Tan's lands, defeated him in battle and had him executed. More information on Yuan Tan can be read [url=http://z13.invisionfree.com/koeiwarriors/index.php?showtopic=6752&st=30]here[/url].

[color=999900][b]Yuan Shu[/b][/color]: Yuan Shu was originally the Grand Administrator of Nanyang. He opposed the 10 eunuchs when they were corrupting the Han Empire. He later decided to fight against Dong Zhuo when he [Dong Zhuo] took over Luoyang. Sun Jian, the former Grand Administrator of Changsha, decided to join Yuan Shu at about this time. Sun Jian managed to win many victories against Dong Zhuo's troops, and eventually wrested Luoyang from Dong Zhuo's iron grip. After the fighting, Yuan Shu and Yuan Shao bickered and battled with one another. When Yuan Shao started to gain the upper hand, Yuan Shu tried to relocate his headquarters to Chenliu, but was assaulted by Cao Cao at Fengqiu and other locations. Finally, Yuan Shu fled with his battered troops to Shou Chun. He rallied his men and besieged the city, eventually conquering it and making it his capital.

Yuan Shu subjugated Danyang commandery and Lu Kang's kingdom after moving to Shou Chun. In Yang province, Liu Yao rebelled against Yuan Shu in Qu'a, and Yuan Shu sent general Wu Jing to control him. Yuan Shu decided to eventually grant Sun Ce several thousand troops to put down Liu Yao. In Xu province, Yuan Shu commanded troops and campaigned against Liu Bei. After bribing Lu Bu to betray Liu Bei, Yuan Shu was able to decisively defeat Liu Bei (who then decided to submit to Lu Bu and rely on him for support). Yuan Shu was satisfied with his successes and proclaimed himself Emperor of Zhong (his kingdom's name). He also tried to arrange a marriage alliance with Lu Bu (I'm not sure if he did this before or after declaring himself Emperor). Lu Bu at first consented, but later withdrew from the agreement and executed some of Yuan Shu's envoys.

Furious, Yuan Shu sent a vast army to launch an incursion into Lu Bu's lands. Two of Yuan Shu's officers defected in battle and Yuan Shu's forces were defeated in battle against Lu Bu, however. Although Yuan Shu succeeded later in conquering a nearby kingdom called Chen (led by Liu Chong), Yuan Shu's days were numbered. He was eventually defeated in subsequent battles against warlords like Cao Cao, and tried to flee to the lands of Yuan Shao. Yuan Shu was intercepted by Liu Bei during his escape, though, and died in a small village [that he had fled to]. Several of his followers then joined one of Yuan Shu's former vassals: Liu Xun.

[color=CC9996][b]Zhang Lu[/b][/color]: Zhang Lu was the third leader of the Celestial Masters religious group. The religion enjoyed its greatest popularity in Yizhou, but when Zhang Lu took control of the group, it was being challenged in the area by a shamanistic religion lead by Zhang Xiu. Eventually Zhang Lu killed Zhang Xiu. After absorbing Zhang Xiu's followers into his army, Zhang Lu acted under orders of the governor of Yizhou, Liu Yan, and took Hanzhong. Though nominally the vassal of Liu Yan, Zhang Lu began ruling Hanzhong somewhat autonomously, and even renamed the territory Han'ning. When he refused to follow the orders of Liu Yan's successor, Liu Zhang, Liu Zhang executed Zhang Lu's mother and many of his family members. From then on, Liu Zhang and Zhang Lu were on bad terms with one another.

As ruler of Hanzhong, Zhang Lu built roads, used tax money to support commoners, and built up a powerful army. His authority was recognized by the Han court, which enfeoffed him as the official Governor of Han'ning. When Ma Chao was defeated by Cao Cao, Ma Chao fled to Zhang Lu's territories and allied with him. Ma Chao then borrowed soldiers from Zhang Lu and attempted to regain some of the territory he had lost from Cao Cao. After he failed, the relationship between Zhang Lu and Ma Chao soured. Ma Chao eventually left the former's territory.

In 215, Cao Cao launched a campaign to conquer Hanzhong. Zhang Wei, Zhang Lu's brother, lead an army against the invading forces. He was soon killed in battle though, and Zhang Lu considered surrendering. Yan Pu, an advisor of Zhang Lu's, told Lu that surrendering so easily would be futile because Cao Cao would not give Zhang Lu many concessions. Zhang Lu followed Yan Pu's advice and retreated to a fortress at Bazhong to put up a stalwart defense in case Cao Cao attacked. When he fled from his capital, Zhang Lu left his wealth and treasures behind. He reputedly said, "These things belong to the country, not to me." Cao Cao was greatly impressed by this, and sent a messenger to Zhang Lu asking him to surrender. When Zhang Lu did, he was given the title of General who Suppresses the South. Zhang Lu's daughter later married Cao Yu (one of Cao Cao's sons). Zhang Lu's sons carried on Zhang Lu's sect of Taoism (called the Five Pecks of Rice), and this sect allegedly evolved into the Taoist group known as Zhengyi Dao. More information on Zhang Lu can be read [url=http://z13.invisionfree.com/koeiwarriors/index.php?showtopic=6752&st=15&#entry3343752]here[/url].

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[center][size=7]Part 5-Novel/Historical Comparison[/center][/size]
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The company Koei bases their games off of the novel, [i]Romance of the Three Kingdoms[/i] (in Pinyin, or Chinese written in English phoenetics, the novel is called [i]Sanguo Yanyi[/i]). [i]Romance of the Three Kingdoms[/i] was written by Luo Guanzhong during the early Ming dynasty. The book is based on the warring of the late years of the Late-Han dynasty and of the warring between the kingdoms of Wei, Wu and Shu. Here are some differences between the novel, [i]Romance of the Three Kingdoms[/i], and the historical Late-Han and Three Kingdom eras.

1.) Sun Jian's army killed Hua Xiong, not Guan Yu (as the novel states)
2.) Liu Bei, Guan Yu, and Zhang Fei were not sworn brothers historically.
3.) The name Diao Chan is likely fictional, but Lu Bu's historical [i]Sanguozhi [/i]biography does mention a concubine of Dong Zhuo's that Lu Bu had an affair with.
4.) Liu Bei, Guan Yu, and Zhang Fei did not duel Lu Bu at Hu Lao Gate historically.
5.) Wen Chou was killed by Cao Cao's men, not Guan Yu, historically.
6.) Zhao Yun did not kill a thousand men trying to rescue Liu Shan. The feats that the novel mentions him performing when he rescued Liu Shan are overexaggerated.
7.) Sun Jian gave the Imperial Seal to Yuan Shu, not Sun Ce.
8.) Most duels in the novel did not happen (Only Taishi Ci vs. Sun Ce is recorded). A duel that may have happened but is not mentioned in the novel was fought between Lu Bu and Guo Si. The mention of this latter duel comes from note 2 of Lu Bu's SGZ biography, which cites a source called Yingxiong Ji.
9.) Taishi Ci died before Chi Bi, and not during He Fei as the novel states.
10.) Gan Ning was not killed by Shamoke historically.
11.) Sun Ce did not die because of Yu Ji's mystical manipulations (who is also sometimes called Gan Ji). Instead, Sun Ce was wounded by retainers of Xu Gong (who ambushed him towards the end of his life), and ended up dieing from these injuries.
12.) Huang Zhong did not die during Yi Ling, but died before it.
13.) Guan Yu did not ride through 5 passes and slay 5 of Cao Cao's generals to return to Liu Bei.
14.) Zhu Ran was not slain during the Battle of Yi Ling historically.
15.) Lu Meng was not killed by Guan Yu's ghost, as the novel describes. His death didn't involve blood flying out of every orifice of his body either.
16.) Zhang Fei was probably not a drunkard historically.
17.) Zhuge Liang did not win the Battle of Bowang. The Battle of Bowangpo was a minor victory that Liu Bei won against Xiahou Dun.
18.) During the Battle of Chi Bi, Zhuge Liang did conjure up a favorable wind as the novel seems to imply.
19.) Most heights of officers are embellished in the novel, [i]Romance of the Three Kingdoms[/i].
20.) Zhu Rong is not recorded in history.
21.) Zhou Cang is fictional.
22.) Many Yellow Turban officers in the novel are fictional.
23.) Cao Cao never presented Dong Zhuo with the seven-star sword historically.
24.) Guan Ping was historically Guan Yu’s biological child, and not an adopted son
25.) Huang Zhong was not ‘fought with and released’ by Guan Yu. He surrendered to Liu Bei’s army by choice.
26.) Lu Bu was not Ding Yuan’s adopted son historically.
27.) Guan Xing and Zhang Bao had almost no achievements, historically, compared to being extremely talented and important in the novel.
28.) Ma Chao did not fight with Zhang Fei or Liu Bei's army at all historically.
29.) Cao Zhang was not poisoned by Cao Pi, who had nothing to do with his death.
30.) Hu Zhen was not killed by Cheng Pu, but went on to join Li Jue and Guo Si.
31.) In the novel, Zu Mao is killed defending Sun Jian against Hua Xiong. Historically, he defended Sun Jian during a battle between Sun Jian and Dong Zhuo's general Xu Rong. Moreover, he didn't die during the fight. It's unclear what he did after the battle, however.
32.) Guo Huai was not killed by Jiang Wei.
33.) Pan Zhang was not killed by Guan Xing, historically.
34.) Meng Da did not kill Xu Huang, historically.
35.) Cao Zhen did not die from shame over being defeated by Zhuge Liang. He died from illness in Luo Yang.
36.) Sun Quan did not order Guan Yu's execution. Lu Meng did.
37.) Huang Gai was not beaten at Chi Bi for the ruse.
38.) Wang Shuang was not killed by Wei Yan, but in battle with Zhuge Liang's army.
39.) Yan Baihu was not killed by Dong Xi. He lived to see Sun Ce's death.
40.) Zhang Liao died of illness, not from being shot in the groin by Ding Feng.
41.) Yuan Shu's short lived dynasty was called Zhong, not Cheng.
42.) Pang Tong did not chain Cao Cao's ships together at Chi Bi.
43.) Tao Qian did not ask Liu Bei to take Xuzhou. Kong Rong and Chen Deng did after Tao Qian's death.
44.) Tao Qian arranged for the death of Cao Cao's father, historically.
45.) Ma Chao did not kill Li Tong. He died of illness at age 42.
46.) Liu Bei commanded the Han Zhong Campaign, not Huang Zhong.
47.) Historically, Liu Zhang became a Shu vassal after Guan Yu's death.
48.) Chen Gong did not free Cao Cao from arrest, historically.
49.) Fa Zheng was the advisor for the Han Zhong Campaign, not Zhuge Liang.
50.) Ma Teng was not executed before Ma Chao's attack, but a year later.

[hr]
[center][size=7]Part 6-Barbarians of the Late-Han/Three Kingdoms Periods[/center][/size]
[hr]

Below is a guide with information on the various barbarians that disrupted China during the period from Emperor Ling's reign to the Western Jin dynasty-

Southern Yizhou Barbarians-It's not really clear if these people were barbarians or just natives of Southern Yizhou that were discontent with Shu vassaldom. However, the people of Southern Yizhou revolted after Liu Bei's death, and were led by people like Gao Ding, Zhu Bao and Yong Kai. Another leader was Meng Huo, though his role in rebelling against the Shu Empire is debated extensively. These "barbarians" (and I use this term loosely given that they might not have even been foreigners), who are called the 'Nanman' in Dynasty Warriors, were located in Southern Yizhou Province in places like Yun-nan commandery.

Man-'Man' refers to the Southern barbarians. One particularly famous leader of a southern tribe was Shamoke, who supported Shu at Yiling.

Shan Yue-Fei Zhan, Sheng Shang, Zou Tuo and Yan Baihu were all significant leaders. The main group of Shanyue were located in Yang Province, in the southeast areas that Wu controlled primarily but also spread out in other places throughout the area. The Shanyue also may have been a threat in Southern Jingzhou. Shanyue frequently served as mercenaries under leaders like Taishi Ci and Zu Lang (both of whom opposed Sun Ce). Fei Zhan and Yan Baihu were probably the most famous Shanyue of them all (and Zou Tuo was a leader who supported the latter). The former of them led a group of the Shanyue which was defeated by Lu Xun. The latter, known mainly by the name 'White Tiger Yan' (Yan Baihu), was a Shanyue rebel who allied with other Shanyue chiefs against Sun Ce. He was to be defeated by the 'Little Conqueror.'

Xianbei-The Xianbei were located to the north of Han China. Many of the chieftains controlled lands that were not even bordering the northern frontier. There were a bunch of different tribal chieftains, including Tanshikuai, Kebineng and Budugen. The most famous of the chieftains were probably the first two, both of whom fought against the Han and Wei dynasties respectively. Kebineng conducted many devastating raids against Bingzhou and other provinces, although was eventually assassinated. With his death came some degree of peace between the Xianbei and the northern areas of China until Tufa Shujineng, another Xianbei chief, revolted against the Western Jin dynasty. Tufa Shujineng's revolt was crushed by the Jin leader Ma Long. Here's a good site that talks about the Xianbei: www.uglychinese.org/threestates.htm

Xiongnu-They were weakening in power while the Late-Han was growing weaker itself. During the reign of the Xiongnu prince Yufuluo's father, there was a rebellion that effectively forced Yufuluo and Huchuquan to give up the possibility of becoming rulers themselves. The two men travelled the land as mercenaries/bandits. Yufuluo aided Yuan Shu but the latter was defeated multiple times by Cao Cao. Afterwards Yufuluo made Pingyang his base and settled there. Yufuluo's brother, Huchuquan, continued ruling in Pingyang and allied with Yuan Shang. Thanks to Yuan Shang's general Guo Yuan, Huchuquan managed to defeat an attempt of the Cao's to takeover Pingyang, but when Guo Yuan's army was destroyed at Fen River, Huchuquan surrendered to Wei. Thereafter, the Xiongnu were moved to Bing, where they grew in population. The leaders changed their family name from Luanti to Liu after stating that they were related to the Han through an old marriage arrangement. Liu Yuan, Yufuluo's grandson, was later attacked numerous times by Jin, but afterwards took over Luoyang and founded the Han Zhao dynasty.

Wuhuan-They were sort of pacified by Yuan Shao. Yuan Shao even gave women to their chieftains to marry. The most famous of the Wuhuan leaders were Supuyan and Tadun. While Cao Cao was fighting Yuan Shang and Tan, the Wuhuan served Cao Cao's enemies as cavalry. Eventually Cao Cao decided to penetrate deep within Wuhuan territory to decisively defeat his adversaries. With Zhang Liao leading the vanguard, the troops under his command defeated the Wuhuan in the Battle of Mount Bolang, and took Tadun's head. Afterwards Yuan Shang, Tan and Supuyan fled to Gongsun Kang, who beheaded all three in order to win Cao Cao's favor. The Wuhuan were present in Youbeiping, which was in the Northeast of China (the area is simply called 'Bei Ping' in Koei games).

Di-Helped to form the kingdom of Cheng in 304 AD.

Qiang-Also located to the west or northwest, slightly north of the Di I believe. There were many different groups of Qiang barbarians, and they allied and fought with both Wei and Shu at various points in time, I think. They also allied with Ma Chao against Cao Cao I believe.

[b][hr][/b]
[center][size=7]Part 7-Ideas for Other Sections[/center][/size]
[b][hr][/b]

-Actual Martial Skill of Generals
-I need more ideas...
-?

[To be Continued]

[b][hr][/b]
[center][size=7]Part 8-Credits[/center][/size]
[b][hr][/b]

Thank you [b]ZhouTai50[/b] for the Gongsun Zan, Yuan Tan, Liu Zhang and Zhang Lu biographies you've made, for writing a long list of differences between the historical Three Kingdoms period and the novel, [i]Romance of the Three Kingdoms[/i] (you've made 50 points thus far), and for helping me decide on what should go in this guideline.
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Shogun
Han's Unifier
Shogun
Han's Unifier
Joined: March 2nd, 2007, 7:47 am

June 29th, 2007, 9:58 am #2

I used to remember when you rejected this idea, but now you want to do it. I can help, with the "Important Warlords of the Late-Han" and the "Ideas for other Sections." :)
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SlickSlicer
Han's Unifier
Joined: April 29th, 2007, 10:53 pm

June 30th, 2007, 12:29 am #3

Ok. I've been a little bit more busy than usual of late so...I dunno how much time I will have to work on it myself.
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Wenze
Right General
Wenze
Right General
Joined: July 17th, 2006, 12:54 am

June 30th, 2007, 1:05 am #4

I'd be happy to help with anything here. :)
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Shogun
Han's Unifier
Shogun
Han's Unifier
Joined: March 2nd, 2007, 7:47 am

June 30th, 2007, 1:26 am #5

Should I PM you the bios and info I made or just post it?
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Joined: July 28th, 2006, 8:13 pm

June 30th, 2007, 1:30 am #6

Sangoku is the Japanese term for it. You should rename the thread "Sanguo Guideline" or "Three Kingdoms Guideline" instead. Besides that, though, good work.
Nothing to see here.
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Shogun
Han's Unifier
Shogun
Han's Unifier
Joined: March 2nd, 2007, 7:47 am

June 30th, 2007, 1:34 am #7

Sangoku and Sengoku are two different things I believe.
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SlickSlicer
Han's Unifier
Joined: April 29th, 2007, 10:53 pm

June 30th, 2007, 11:08 am #8

Aight, but I don't have mod powers. Somebody rename the thread to one of the names that the good Sun Ce of East Wu recommended.

If you want to help out, Shogun, Zhou Tai, others, then just post in this thread. :)
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Shogun
Han's Unifier
Shogun
Han's Unifier
Joined: March 2nd, 2007, 7:47 am

June 30th, 2007, 4:36 pm #9

This should be renamed and stickied. I hope you don't abandon this like you did with the Sengoku Guideline topic Slick >_>
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Hondam
Han's Unifier
Hondam
Han's Unifier
Joined: August 30th, 2005, 6:41 am

July 5th, 2007, 3:37 am #10

Will this project be continued?
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