## Lightspeed is not Constant (to observer) !!

nakayama
nakayama
In a book "The theory of relativity" by W.Pauli : 1958, there is a passage as follows. "Rather should one say that for an observer moving with the medium, light is propagated as usual with velocity c/n in all directions".

It may explain that null result of Michelson-Morley experiment. And may deny Einstein's explanation on the result of Fizeau experiment with flowing water : 1851.
There is Einstein's passage the same as above Pauli's. Therefore (probably) he say he didn't know M-M experiment. He may have no choice (but to say so).

nakayama
nakayama
Even i : a poor amateur can show several proofs. The following is one of these.

In outer space, a mirror is reflecting a star light. When mirror moves along the light path, the formula : lightspeed = frequency x wavelength changes as follows (at view point of the mirror).
Frequency & wavelength change. Lightspeed is unchangeable.
Frequency & lightspeed change. Wavelength is unchangeable.

http://www.geocities.co.jp/Technopolis/2561/eng.html
On the moon's surface, there is a passenger car. It's roof is made of glass. From just above, light waves (plane waves) of a star are entering this roof horizontally. These plane waves reach floor horizontally also (it must be so geometrically). If Einstein's "right triangle" is right, when the passenger car moves, number of waves that stay between the roof and floor may increase. And it may be the same to an observer who is in the passenger car (it's irrational. speed of light ray in the moving car is appearance).

nakayama
nakayama
Even i : a poor amateur can show several proofs. The following is one of these.

In outer space, a mirror is reflecting a star light. When mirror moves along the light path, the formula : lightspeed = frequency x wavelength changes as follows (at view point of the mirror).
Frequency & wavelength change. Lightspeed is unchangeable.
Frequency & lightspeed change. Wavelength is unchangeable.

http://www.geocities.co.jp/Technopolis/2561/eng.html
[P.S. : To the post on 31 Jan 10] The speed of wave front (horizontal) in above passenger car (moving) may be visible to be the same to an observer who stands on the moon's surface.

Don Nelson
Don Nelson
Even i : a poor amateur can show several proofs. The following is one of these.

In outer space, a mirror is reflecting a star light. When mirror moves along the light path, the formula : lightspeed = frequency x wavelength changes as follows (at view point of the mirror).
Frequency & wavelength change. Lightspeed is unchangeable.
Frequency & lightspeed change. Wavelength is unchangeable.

http://www.geocities.co.jp/Technopolis/2561/eng.html
See item that I submitted to the forum on "The Special Relativity Solution and the Shrinking Universe." If you are on the mirror, it is at rest with itself and all comoving point and the the speed of light would measurted in the mirror rest frame. If you are on earth the earth would be at rest with itself and the speed of light would be measured in its rest frame. Therefore, the two measurements have the same value. Likewise if you determine the velocity light in any frame it would be determine in the rest frame.

AAF
AAF
Even i : a poor amateur can show several proofs. The following is one of these.

In outer space, a mirror is reflecting a star light. When mirror moves along the light path, the formula : lightspeed = frequency x wavelength changes as follows (at view point of the mirror).
Frequency & wavelength change. Lightspeed is unchangeable.
Frequency & lightspeed change. Wavelength is unchangeable.

http://www.geocities.co.jp/Technopolis/2561/eng.html

Is the speed of light always equal to [c] in the reference frame in which light is at rest?

No; not always; only in free space!

For example, in water, the speed of light, relative to its own rest frame, is equal to [c/n];
where [n] is the refractive index of water.

Don Nelson
Don Nelson
Even i : a poor amateur can show several proofs. The following is one of these.

In outer space, a mirror is reflecting a star light. When mirror moves along the light path, the formula : lightspeed = frequency x wavelength changes as follows (at view point of the mirror).
Frequency & wavelength change. Lightspeed is unchangeable.
Frequency & lightspeed change. Wavelength is unchangeable.

http://www.geocities.co.jp/Technopolis/2561/eng.html
It is true and accepted that the speed of light varies in different media. In fact I have read where light has a velocity of nearly zero (38 miles per hour, HARVARD GAZETTE ARCHIVES,Physicists Slow Speed of Light, By William J. Cromie, February 18, 1999). However, I was talking about a near vacumm. It also may be true that light would have a constant velocity in each medium in all interia frame of references since it would be determine in the rest frame where the observer is located.

AAF
AAF
Even i : a poor amateur can show several proofs. The following is one of these.

In outer space, a mirror is reflecting a star light. When mirror moves along the light path, the formula : lightspeed = frequency x wavelength changes as follows (at view point of the mirror).
Frequency & wavelength change. Lightspeed is unchangeable.
Frequency & lightspeed change. Wavelength is unchangeable.

http://www.geocities.co.jp/Technopolis/2561/eng.html

In the previous post, the question was:

"Is the speed of light always equal to [c] in the reference frame in which light is at rest?"

Obviously, the speed of light, in the reference frame in which light is at rest, is always equal to ZERO.

Sorry, for the mistake!

Don Nelson
Don Nelson
Even i : a poor amateur can show several proofs. The following is one of these.

In outer space, a mirror is reflecting a star light. When mirror moves along the light path, the formula : lightspeed = frequency x wavelength changes as follows (at view point of the mirror).
Frequency & wavelength change. Lightspeed is unchangeable.
Frequency & lightspeed change. Wavelength is unchangeable.

http://www.geocities.co.jp/Technopolis/2561/eng.html
The rest frame is where one measures the velocity of light. The meauring apparatus is at rest with respect to meaurering apparatus. When you are in a car the car seems to be at rest and the road appear to be moving. If light was measured in the car again the meausring apparatus would be at rest with the car.

AAF
AAF
Even i : a poor amateur can show several proofs. The following is one of these.

In outer space, a mirror is reflecting a star light. When mirror moves along the light path, the formula : lightspeed = frequency x wavelength changes as follows (at view point of the mirror).
Frequency & wavelength change. Lightspeed is unchangeable.
Frequency & lightspeed change. Wavelength is unchangeable.

http://www.geocities.co.jp/Technopolis/2561/eng.html

If the rest frame is where one measures the velocity of light, then it must be the frame of reference in which the measuring observer is at rest.

Don Nelson
Don Nelson
Even i : a poor amateur can show several proofs. The following is one of these.

In outer space, a mirror is reflecting a star light. When mirror moves along the light path, the formula : lightspeed = frequency x wavelength changes as follows (at view point of the mirror).