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Addicted to NicotineThursday May 29, 2003 - The Borneo Bulletin
Dr Hj Rozaimee delivers his lecture entitled "Nicotine Addiction" at Central Lecture Theatre, Universiti Brunei Darussalam.
Listening attentively to the lecture.Where is Borneo?The President and Executive Board of Brunei Darussalam Institute of Chemistry organised a Professional Lecture entitled "Nicotine Addiction", by Dr Hj Rozaimee bin Hj Tengah, who is a Medical Officer, Ministry of Health, Brunei Darussalam. The talked was held on Sunday May 25, 2003 at 9.45am at Central Lecture Theatre, Universiti Brunei Darussalam.Smokers usually start the habit as early as in their teens, and are addicted to nicotine by the time they are adults; thereafter the choice to quit becomes an illusion. Although two-thirds of smokers want to quit, and about a third try each year, but only 2% have managed to succeed! So, do you think nicotine is as addictive as "hard" drugs such as heroin?Of all the possible ways of obtaining nicotine, smoking cigarettes remain by far the most addictive. The reason is that smoking cigarette maximises the rapidity, frequency, reliability, and ease of attainment of the reward from nicotine. Nicotine via cigarettes reaches the brain in 10 seconds, which is faster than via intravenous use.It is much easier and cheaper to purchase a pack of cigarettes (for example, from petrol stations or local supermarkets) than it is to purchase a packet of nicotine gum. Unfortunately, cigarettes are the deadliest form of nicotine delivery available on the market. It is not the nicotine per se but the combustion and release of over 40 carcinogens as well as other toxic chemicals that are responsible for the bulk of premature illnesses and deaths that result when cigarettes are used as intended.Lastly, but certainly not the least, let us ponder why the most toxic form of nicotine delivery happens to be the least regulated?Structure of nicotineNicotine is an alkaloid (a substance with a basic charge), contained in the leaves of several species of plants. The primary commercial source of nicotine is by extraction from the dried leaves of tobacco plant: Nicotina tabaum & Nicotina rustica.The chemical formula for nicotine is C10 H14 N2 with a molecular mass of 162.23. 3 - (1 - Methyl - 2 - pryrrolidinyl) pyridine has been given as the proper nomenclature for nicotine.Nicotine pharmacologyNicotine has a complex toxicology that includes both adrenergic and cholinergic effects, as well as central nervous system effects. Typically, nicotine produces an initial stimulation of the peripheral nervous system, followed by depression and blockade of sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia and neuromuscular junctions.Nicotine toxicity- Gastrointestinal distress - digestive problems, stomach upset, bowel cramping, constipation etc- Hypothermia - lowers body temperature to below-normal levels- Vomiting- Hypertension - blood vessels constrict to create high BP in some people, increasing potential for aneurysms- Seizures - uncontrolled electrical activity in the brain, resulting in tremors and other abnormal responses- Respiratory distress - nodules in the lungs which increases the potential for the development of small cell lung carcinomas by several hundred percentOther abused drugsNicotine is as addictive as "hard" drugs such as heroin. Heroin induces euphoria, relieves pain and often induces sleep. Heroin overdose can result in death. Serum hepatitis is common. Also skin abscesses, inflammation of the veins, constipation and respiratory depression.Nicotine has certain effects and mechanisms in common with cocaine, including the involvement of dopaminergic transmitters. Cocaine increases blood pressure, heart rate, breathing and body temperature, feelings of euphoria. Regular use can cause anxiety, insomnia, weight loss, increased paranoia and psychosis.Nicotine affects the same areas of the brain as amphetamines. Amphetamines promotes feelings of alertness, increase in speech and physical activity. Amphetamines can produce toxic effects, mood swings, circulatory and cardiac disturbances, feelings of paranoia, hallucinations and convulsions.Cigarette the best method of obtaining nicotineOf all the possible ways of obtaining nicotine, smoking cigarette remains by far the most addictive. The reason is that smoking cigarette maximises the rapidity, frequency, reliability and ease of attainment of the reward from nicotine. Nicotine via cigarette reaches the brain in 10 seconds, even faster than via intravenous use. This is the chemical largely responsible for "hooking" people on cigarettes (popularly known as smoking addiction).Flavouring chemicals e.g. alkenylbenzenes are found in tobacco additives which are used to enhance the taste of cigarette smoke. Research carried out, has associated the inhaling of alkenylbenzenes with cancer as well as lung damage in laboratory animals.Tobacco addictionThe modern cigarette, developed and find tuned by the tobacco industry over decades, is a wonderfully efficient nicotine delivery device, delivering the optimum dose of nicotine, so ever rapidly to the dependent brain, with the help of many additives (sugars, mint, licorice or cherry), so that the smoke of the cigarette is made more pleasant.Quitting is not simply a matter of choice for the majority of tobacco users. It involves a struggle to overcome an addiction. Tobacco use typically is woven into everyday life and can be physiologically, psychologically and socially reinforcing. Many factors combine with tobacco's addictive capacity (including media depictions, cultural and societal acceptance of tobacco use) in order to make quitting difficult.Other ingredients in cigarettesMany people are unaware of the number of toxins in tobacco smoke. Tobacco smoke contains over 4000 chemical compounds, including at least 40 cancer-causing carcinogenic agents. 3 main ingredients. Apart from nicotine: Tar and carbon monoxide.TarA term used to describe the 20 (or more) different carcinogens (cancer-causing substances). Tends to collect in the lungs. Clinically linked to several forms of lung cancer.Carbon monoxide (CO)CO is the same deadly stuff that comes out of a car's exhaust pipe. People have been known to use CO to commit suicide. CO enters the bloodstream and stays there for up to 6 hrs after each cigarette.Every cell in our body needs oxygen to survive. CO molecules take the place of oxygen in our blood. It's much like taking a seat in a bus - once it's full there is no more spaces left. Hence, inhibiting the transportation of oxygen to the body's vital organs via the bloodstream.Decreased oxygen supply to the heart may lead to a heart attack. Increased CO reduces the level of oxygen carried to our brain which can lead to a decrease of mental ability. Smokers also become easily short of breath because the blood is carrying less oxygen.Other constituentsArsenic: a poison used in insecticidesAmmonia: a chemical used in toilet cleanerAcetone: a solvent used in nail varnish removerBenzene: a solvent used in the manufacture of fuelCadmium: a poisonous metal found in batteriesChromium: used for metal platingFormaldehyde: a chemical used to preserve dead bodiesHydrogen cyanide: a lethal gas and can be used in photographyHydroquinone: used in rubber production and in motor fuelLead: used in storage batteriesNickel: used in stainless steel productionNutbae: used in camping gas and lighter fuelPhenol: used I disinfectants and germicidal paintsTecanoe: used in paint stripperRicnesa: found in ant poisonToluene: used in explosivesOther tobacco productsSmokeless (spit) tobacco has 3 forms:- Snuff: ground-up moist tobacco, usually placed between bottom lip and gum. Snuff users become addicted to nicotine and may be tempted to switch to cigarette to get larger and quicker doses of the drug- Chew: shredded tobacco leaves placed between the cheek and gum. Tobacco chewers become as addicted to nicotine as smokers- Plug: shredded tobacco leaves which are pressed into a hard block and placed between the cheek and gumRecently, the cigar industry has tried to attract new, younger users, including women, by promoting cigars as a sophisticated, luxury product.Typical amount of nicotine found in various tobacco productsCigarettes: 15 - 20 mgCigars: 15 - 40 mgSnuff: 12.4 - 15.6 mg / gmChewing tobacco: 2.5 mg / gmGum: 2 mg / gmTransderm patch: 17.5 - 52.5 mg / patchHistory of tobaccoColumbus' crew introduced tobacco growing and use to Spain. Jean Nicot, the French ambassador in Portugal, first introduced tobacco in French court. The different ways of using tobacco also originated from America. Cigarette, Beedi, Snuff, Cigars and Pipes remain the popular means of using tobacco.Most of the work related to nicotine rich tobacco varieties could be attributed to tobacco companies in USA. The developmental work from 1960 to 1994 aimed ultimately at increasing the sale of tobacco products.Before the recent revelations in 1960, that the presence of nicotine in tobacco products make them addictive and is the reason why many people continue to use them, and despite the evidence of the harmful effect of tobacco use, Nicotine generally was perceived to be merely a natural part of tobacco leaf and inevitable component of any tobacco product.Tobacco companies started on working for developing a more addictive, a new nicotine rich, harder to kick tobacco and finally developed a genetically altered variety with the code name Y - 1. The history of development of nicotine rich tobacco varieties in the world, thus can be attributed to British American Tobacco (BAT) industries.Tobacco as a global epidemicOne-third of the world's population aged 15 and above, smoke regularly. More than 1.25 billion smokers worldwide. 1 billion male smokers and 0.25 billion female smokers. 80% of them in developing countries.Tobacco was estimated to account for just over 3 million annual deaths in 1990. Rising to 4 million unnecessary deaths per year (corresponding to 11,000 deaths daily) in 1998. Half of these deaths occur in productive middle ages. Responsible for one death every 10 seconds worldwide.It is estimated that tobacco attributable deaths will rise to 8.4 million in 2020. By 2030, tobacco likely will be the world's leading cause of death and disability, killing more than 10 million people annually and claiming more lives than HIV, TB, maternal mortality, motor vehicle accidents, suicide and homicide combined.Unless the current smoking patterns change, in 21st century, about 1 billion people will die from smoking - 10x compared throughout 20th century.Brunei statisticsMale smokers: 31.1%Female smokers: 5.3%Age 20 to 29: the largest group of current smokersHealth impact of tobaccoMost health consequences of smoking are not manifested until 3 to 4 decades after the onset of persistent smoking. This reduces the seriousness with which tobacco issues are addressed. Lung cancer and CHD (coronary heart disease) are the most common fatal conditions caused by tobacco, responsible for 30% of all deaths in the UK.A prospective study by Doll and Peto, which began in 1951 for 40 years, involving 40,000 male British doctors, found that smoking is associated with excess mortality from the following diseases: Cancers of the mouth, oesophagus, larynx, pharynx and lung, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and other respiratory and vascular diseases.Another prospective study by Rimm et al, involving 40,000 men, found that smoking over 15 cigarettes per day, is associated with a doubled risk of developing type 2 diabetes.A study published by Wannamethee et al, found that life-long smokers have a nearly 4-fold increased risk of having a stroke. The risk in ex-smokers was found to be nearly twice that in non-smokers. Benefits from stopping smoking can be seen within 5 years.Copyright © 2003 Brunei Press Sdn Bhd. All right reserved
For Smoker,More Prison Time Is No CrimeTues. March 2, 204WINNIPEG, Manitoba (Reuters) - For a 73-year-old Canadian man, 20 months in a smoke-free jail looked just too long, so instead he took 24 months in a prison where he can smoke cigarettes.[/size]
Angelo Foti was sentenced to 20 months for shooting and wounding a man in his backyard who was trying to repossess a snowmobile sold to Foti's son, the Winnipeg Free Press reported Tuesday.[/size]
In court Monday, Angelo Foti was agitated when he realized the sentence would mean he would be in a provincial jail, where smoking is banned, the newspaper said.[/size]
Foti's lawyer pleaded for a 24-month sentence instead, which means the man will go to a federal prison, where smoking is allowed.[/size]
In accepting the longer term, Foti, a dedicated pack-a-day man, ignored the wishes of this family.[/size]
"Dad, they're just cigarettes -- give them up. Quit smoking: you'll be healthier," his son Angelo Jr. said in court. "Just take the 20 months."[/size]
Link to story:[/size]Copyright © 2004 Reuters Limited. All rights reserved[/size]Thanks Jill for the story link![/size]
|From: Joel||Sent: 2/8/2004 5:03 AM|
| In case any one here ever finds him or herself asking the question "Was I addicted?," the answer is yes. More important, you must recognize that you are still addicted, even though the addiction may have become totally asymptomatic. To avoid ever becoming caught in the iron clad grip that nicotine once exerted on you, once again being on a course of total self-destruction, stay focused on fact that the only that you can keep the addiction under your complete control is to always remember that to stay smoke free you must never take another puff! Joel |
|From: OBob-Gold||Sent: 9/18/2002 6:26 PM|
| Just to reinforce what is being said today.... Not only WERE you (me, everybody here) addicted, but you will ALWAYS be addicted. |
There are two types of addicts. They stand on either side of the one puff. Stay on this side, and you'll always be a FREE addict; not an enslaved one.
Cigarette smoking is an addiction. It is imperative to remember that once you are an addict, you are always an addict. Once you are off smoking for a short period of time, staying off is relatively easy. You will have occasional thoughts for a cigarette, but they are nothing compared to the urges encountered from withdrawal during the early quitting process. But you must always keep in mind that one puff will put you back to a state of full fledged dependency. Then you will either have to go back to smoking or once again go through quitting. Those are both lousy options. Think of both of them whenever you consider taking a puff. Stick with the winners and - NEVER TAKE ANOTHER PUFF!
© Joel Spitzer 1982, 2000
Page last updated by Joel Spitzer on August 25, 2003
|From: JoeJFree-Gold-||Sent: 2/15/2007 8:53 PM|
"You were addicted to nicotine all of the years you used it
you are addicted to it today too.
But as an ex-smoker the addiction becomes asymptomatic.
To keep it that way and to basically stay in control
always remember to Never Take Another Puff!"
-taken from first post..written by Joel