Smoking and Stomach Cancer
Source: U.S. National Cancer InstituteBased on solid evidence, smoking is associated with an increased risk of stomach cancer.[1-3] Based on the 2004 Surgeon General’s report, cigarette smoking is a cause of stomach cancer, with an average relative risk (RR) in former smokers of 1.2 and in current smokers of 1.6. Compared to persistent smokers, the risk of stomach cancer decreases among former smokers with time since cessation. This pattern of observations makes it reasonable to infer that cigarette smoking prevention or cessation would result in a decreased risk of gastric cancer.
- Study Design: Evidence obtained from case-control and cohort studies.
- Internal Validity: Good.
- Consistency: Good.
- Magnitude of Effects on Health Outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis showed a 60% increase in gastric cancer in male smokers and a 20% increase in gastric cancer in female smokers compared to nonsmokers.
- External Validity: Good.
- Ladeiras-Lopes R, Pereira AK, Nogueira A, et al.: Smoking and gastric cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Cancer Causes Control 19 (7): 689-701, 2008. [PUBMED Abstract]
- González CA, Pera G, Agudo A, et al.: Smoking and the risk of gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Int J Cancer 107 (4): 629-34, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
- La Torre G, Chiaradia G, Gianfagna F, et al.: Smoking status and gastric cancer risk: an updated meta-analysis of case-control studies published in the past ten years. Tumori 95 (1): 13-22, 2009 Jan-Feb. [PUBMED Abstract]
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.: The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, Ga: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health. . Available online. Last accessed October 13, 2010.
An upper GI series in a patient with cancer of the stomach (gastric carcinoma).