Smoking and Pregnancy

GrumpyOMrsS Gold
Joined: 20 Jan 2009, 21:48

25 Dec 2005, 23:30 #41

The idea of just quitting to get pregnant or having a baby can pose a risk after the baby is delivered. You can figure now that the risks are now gone, you quit for the important time period. But still keep in mind that even though you did your baby a favor by quitting, you really did yourself the bigger favor.
For not only did you reduce the risk to your baby, you reduced your risk of being sicker throughout your life and eventually dying prematurely--you increased your ability to be active with your baby, throughout his or her life, even when your baby becomes an adult. You increased the odds that you will be around to see your baby eventually have children of his or her own, and even then you can be an active participant in yet another generation, as opposed to an elderly person on oxygen who watches family events from the sidelines, if you can even go to see them at all.

Quitting for pregnancy is a reason to start your quit. Staying off though is more comprehensive than this. There are many other benefits that go along with staying an ex-smoker that will stick with you throughout your entire life. To keep these benefits, always remember that the best way to improve "your" overall health and quality of life is to never take another puff!

Joel
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John Gold
Joined: 20 Jan 2009, 21:43

31 Jan 2006, 10:48 #42

Mode of action: disruption of brain cell replication, second messenger, and neurotransmitter systems during development leading to cognitive dysfunction--developmental neurotoxicity of nicotine.
Critical Reviews in Toxicology 2005 Oct-Nov;35(8-9):703-11.


Slikker W Jr, Xu Z, Levin ED, Slotkin TA.

Division of Neurotoxicology, NCTR/FDA, Jefferson, Arkansas 72079, USA. [url=mailto:wslikker@nctr.fda.gov]wslikker@nctr.fda.gov[/url]

Developmental exposure to nicotine in rats results in neurobehavioral effects such as reduced locomotor and cognitive function. Key events in the animal mode of action (MOA) include binding to the nicotinic cholinergic receptor during prenatal and/or early postnatal development. This leads to premature onset of cell differentiation at the expense of cell replication, which leads to brain cell death or structural alterations in regional brain areas.
Other events include an initial increase followed by a decrease in adenyl cyclase activity, as well as effects on the noradrenergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic neurotransmitter systems. Because the nicotine receptor is also present in the developing human brain and the underlying biology for DNA synthesis and cell signaling is comparable, this MOA is likely to be relevant for humans.
Although the effects of nicotine exposure in developing humans is not well documented, nicotine exposure as a result of cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with several physiological and behavioral outcomes that are reminiscent of the effects of nicotine alone in animal models. As data become available with the advent of the use of the nicotine patch in pregnant humans, the question as to the relative importance of smoking per se versus nicotine alone may be determined.

PMID: 16417037 [PubMed - in process]
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John Gold
Joined: 20 Jan 2009, 21:43

31 Jan 2006, 10:58 #43

If you are pregnant and reading this message Dr. Slotkin of Duke Medical University, who is referenced in the above study, has a few words he wants to read and think about. Please keep in mind that Dr. Slotkin is one of the world's lead toxicologists studying nicotine's path of destruction during fetal animal development.

From: Theodore Slotkin [url=mailto:t.slotkin@duke.edu]t.slotkin@duke.edu[/url]
To: John R. Polito
[url=mailto:john@whyquit.com]john@whyquit.com[/url]
Sent: Monday, January 09, 2006 11:33 AM
Subject: Re: NRT pregnancy use


I certainly have no objections to your sharing my comments - I'm on record for this information in a number of reviews and primary research papers, and I think it's important to get that information out to practitioners and to smokers.


One of my main concerns is that, although NRT is fine for smoking cessation in nonpregnant smokers, the assumption that it is safe in pregnancy leads people away from thinking about more effective (albeit more costly) ways of addressing the issue. It's easy to dispense drugs (even if they don't work and cause damage to the fetus, and damage to the developing brain doesn't show up as an obvious "birth defect") and although it's harder to go one-on-one with a pregnant smoker to try to get the desired results, it's probably more effective. Also, the patch is the "easiest" NRT approach, and it turns out that this is the absolute worst form of nicotine administration for the fetus.

Essentially, achieving a continuous steady-state plasma level of nicotine in the mother removes the protective effect of the placenta (delay of entry to fetus, partial catabolism of nicotine) because all water spaces become saturated with nicotine. A recent paper from Walter Lichtensteiger's group showed that the brains of fetal mice wound up with 3x the nicotine concentration found in maternal plasma when a continuous administration paradigm was used.

So NRT might be OK, but not on a continuous basis - at the very least, removing the patch at night would allow for some "wash-out" from the fetus (but probably not much, since fetal clearance of nicotine is lower than in mom). Beyond that, there is still the nagging problem that the only two controlled studies on quit rate in pregnant smokers found no help from NRT. So promoting NRT in pregnancy still needs someone to show that the benefits outweigh the risks.

Regards,


Ted Slotkin
Reply

Joel
Joined: 18 Dec 2008, 23:57

04 Sep 2006, 21:50 #44

It is important for women who are in the stage of their lives of family planning take their smoking into consideration. The idea of just quitting to get pregnant or having a baby can pose a risk after the baby is delivered. You can figure now that the risks are now gone, you quit for the important time period. But still keep in mind that even though you did your baby a favor by quitting, you really did yourself the bigger favor.

For not only did you reduce the risk to your baby, you reduced your risk of being sicker throughout your life and eventually dying prematurely--you increased your ability to be active with your baby, throughout his or her life, even when your baby becomes an adult. You increased the odds that you will be around to see your baby eventually have children of his or her own, and even then you can be an active participant in yet another generation, as opposed to an elderly person on oxygen who watches family events from the sidelines, if you can even go to see them at all.

Quitting for pregnancy is a reason to start your quit. Staying off though is more comprehensive than this. There are many other benefits that go along with staying an ex-smoker that will stick with you throughout your entire life. To keep these benefits, always remember that the best way to improve "your" overall health and quality of life is to never take another puff!

Joel
Reply

Blue1451
Joined: 18 Dec 2008, 23:57

06 Sep 2006, 14:11 #45

I quit when I got pregnant with my son....i think i smoked another week after learning i was pregnant and just couldn't anymore...i didn't want to hurt my unborn child. He was born healthy and happy March.1/ 05...I breast fed him for 8 months...the day i switched to formula is the day i started smoking again!!!!!

I am pregnant again...with a sibling for my sweet baby....this time...i was smoke free for over 2 months BEFORE I got pregnant. The difference this time...i had quit for myself..for my body!!! I will never smoke again....i am an addict and will stay in recovery!
NTAP!!!!!
Gosh...don't smoke while pregnant...don't smoke while bf...don't smoke around your children...it is not only harmful to them but as they watch you..your teaching them to be addicts!!!!!

I have been quit for 5 Months, 1 Week, 4 Days, 6 minutes and 55 seconds (164 days). I have saved $770.81 by not smoking 1,312 cigarettes. I have saved 4 Days, 13 hours and 20 minutes of my life.
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Sal GOLD.ffn
Joined: 16 Jan 2003, 08:00

24 Sep 2006, 03:12 #46

From: John (Gold) Sent: 1/30/2006 8:58 PM
If you are pregnant and reading this message Dr. Slotkin of Duke Medical University, who is referenced in the above study, has a few words he wants to read and think about. Please keep in mind that Dr. Slotkin is one of the world's lead toxicologists studying nicotine's path of destruction during fetal animal development.

From: Theodore Slotkin [url=mailto:t.slotkin@duke.edu]t.slotkin@duke.edu[/url]
To: John R. Polito
[url=mailto:john@whyquit.com]john@whyquit.com[/url]
Sent: Monday, January 09, 2006 11:33 AM
Subject: Re: NRT pregnancy use


I certainly have no objections to your sharing my comments - I'm on record for this information in a number of reviews and primary research papers, and I think it's important to get that information out to practitioners and to smokers.


One of my main concerns is that, although NRT is fine for smoking cessation in nonpregnant smokers, the assumption that it is safe in pregnancy leads people away from thinking about more effective (albeit more costly) ways of addressing the issue. It's easy to dispense drugs (even if they don't work and cause damage to the fetus, and damage to the developing brain doesn't show up as an obvious "birth defect") and although it's harder to go one-on-one with a pregnant smoker to try to get the desired results, it's probably more effective. Also, the patch is the "easiest" NRT approach, and it turns out that this is the absolute worst form of nicotine administration for the fetus.

Essentially, achieving a continuous steady-state plasma level of nicotine in the mother removes the protective effect of the placenta (delay of entry to fetus, partial catabolism of nicotine) because all water spaces become saturated with nicotine. A recent paper from Walter Lichtensteiger's group showed that the brains of fetal mice wound up with 3x the nicotine concentration found in maternal plasma when a continuous administration paradigm was used.

So NRT might be OK, but not on a continuous basis - at the very least, removing the patch at night would allow for some "wash-out" from the fetus (but probably not much, since fetal clearance of nicotine is lower than in mom). Beyond that, there is still the nagging problem that the only two controlled studies on quit rate in pregnant smokers found no help from NRT. So promoting NRT in pregnancy still needs someone to show that the benefits outweigh the risks.

Regards,


Ted Slotkin
Reply

John Gold
Joined: 20 Jan 2009, 21:43

15 Feb 2007, 00:56 #47

Critical Review:
Nicotine for the Fetus,
the Infant and the Adolescent?

http://whyquit.com/NRT/studies/Ginzel_et_al_12_2.pdf
Last edited by John Gold on 08 Dec 2013, 21:51, edited 1 time in total.
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John Gold
Joined: 20 Jan 2009, 21:43

23 Mar 2007, 21:16 #48

Study: Nicotine reduces attention capacity
NEW HAVEN, Conn., March 22 (UPI) --U.S. scientists have determined exposure to nicotine might diminish a person's attention capacity.
Yale University researchers led by Leslie Jacobsen found teenage smokers who were also exposed to nicotine before birth showed a dramatic reduction in attention capacities related to vision and hearing. The scientists also demonstrated male and female attention capacities are affected by the exposure in different ways.


Jacobsen's team determined girls who smoke and were subject to nicotine exposure in the womb performed most poorly in both visual and auditory attention tasks. In boys, nicotine exposure had a greater effect on auditory attention, suggesting brain regions involved in auditory attention might be more vulnerable to nicotine in males.


The researchers believe the gender-specific effects may result from differences in hormonal control of nicotine's actions.


The study appears in the journal Neuropsychopharmacology.

Source link:

http://www.upi.com/NewsTrack/Science/20 ... 351-1235r/
© Copyright 2007 United Press International, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
----------------------------
Gender-Specific Effects of Prenatal and Adolescent Exposure to Tobacco Smoke on Auditory and Visual Attention.
Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007 March Volume 21
Jacobsen LK, Slotkin TA, Mencl WE, Frost SJ, Pugh KR.
[1] 1Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA [2] 2Department of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA [3] 3Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, CT, USA.
Prenatal exposure to active maternal tobacco smoking elevates risk of cognitive and auditory processing deficits, and of smoking in offspring. Recent preclinical work has demonstrated a sex-specific pattern of reduction in cortical cholinergic markers following prenatal, adolescent, or combined prenatal and adolescent exposure to nicotine, the primary psychoactive component of tobacco smoke.
Given the importance of cortical cholinergic neurotransmission to attentional function, we examined auditory and visual selective and divided attention in 181 male and female adolescent smokers and nonsmokers with and without prenatal exposure to maternal smoking. Groups did not differ in age, educational attainment, symptoms of inattention, or years of parent education. A subset of 63 subjects also underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing an auditory and visual selective and divided attention task.
Among females, exposure to tobacco smoke during prenatal or adolescent development was associated with reductions in auditory and visual attention performance accuracy that were greatest in female smokers with prenatal exposure (combined exposure). Among males, combined exposure was associated with marked deficits in auditory attention, suggesting greater vulnerability of neurocircuitry supporting auditory attention to insult stemming from developmental exposure to tobacco smoke in males. Activation of brain regions that support auditory attention was greater in adolescents with prenatal or adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke relative to adolescents with neither prenatal nor adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke.
These findings extend earlier preclinical work and suggest that, in humans, prenatal and adolescent exposure to nicotine exerts gender-specific deleterious effects on auditory and visual attention, with concomitant alterations in the efficiency of neurocircuitry supporting auditory attention.
Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 21 March 2007; doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1301398.
PMID: 17375135 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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debbie51975
Joined: 19 Dec 2008, 00:35

22 Apr 2007, 09:35 #49

I feel a need to respond to this. Through my own shame about smoking around young kids. While I literally couldn't smoke while pregant, due to being in the hospital on bedrest for MONTHS! (Boy did that wreak havoc on my nerves!), I ALWAYS lit up on walking out the door after ny babys birth. As soon as that baby came out I'd wheel myself outside and puff away. (gestational diabetes and all)


Anyway, just to run home for any lurkers just thinking about quitting right now, but maybe they're not ready, I'm going to confess to you and to myself, my childrens problems due to my smoking. (Like in the car with the windows down, thinking that will be plenty of ventilation!)

My oldest is 14, with mild asthma, but when she was born, I wasn't even a smoker yet, but it should have given me a clue, that it was in the gene pool! I have smoked for 12 years. He asthama developed at 3 years. Do the math.

My 7 year old has moderate to severe asthma.

My 2 year old has been close to losing his life on several occassions. He's Severe. They actaully thought Cystic Fibrosis. The fluid in his lungs would not go away. It built up for year. He had a sweat test, but when that was negative, they did a test to check the DNA for any CF markers. That was neg. Let me tell about his life and mine. We wake up every morning to a pill (not supposed to put names of meds on here I think), then a tsp of liquid, followed by a mask connected to a nebulizer, two, one a steroid (that takes 15 minutes), the other a bronchial dialater (another 15 minutes). He does those treatments every for hours, 24/7. If I skip, there are days when his fingertips, tint a bluish color. Last year, he contracted RSV (a virus that severly effects babies lungs and can be fatal). The night he went into the hospital, he didn't even have the strength to open his eyes. When they flew him to Cleveland, they rushed to connect him to all this equipment. We had to sign a form saying we gave permission for intubation if it became neccessary. There was big bed, no cribs. The nurse said that the toddlers in this ward didn't need cribs, because they were all so ill, they couldn't roll off the bed. They couldn't move! At around 10:30 pm I asked the nurse why my son was making that horrible grunting cry and that maybe he was hurting. She said he wasn't hurting, he was gasping for air. My beautiful Thomas couldn't breath. Alot of people came into the room. They were giving him so many drugs and then more drugs to counteract the side effects of the drugs they had just given him.

Our lowest point...and I'll never forget this (heck, I'm crying now, just remembering), "Mike and Debbie, we've reached the point were your son is not progressing and we may need to start thinking about what might make him more comfortable at this point."

Of course stupid me "I don't know what you mean, what are saying"

My husbands in the corner of the room, balled up and sobbing.

At that point I asked the doctor to please leave the room, I couldn't talk right now. Please leave me alone with my son.


We held Thomas all through the night. He was hugging my chest. I prayed like I have NEVER prayed in my life. I bargained and begged. A couple hours later, all of those miracle drugs finally started to do their job.

Don't for a minute pity or tell me this wasn't my fault. I KNOW more then I know anything in this world, that my smoking and my husbands smoking contibuted to the illness that my son will live with for the rest of his life.

With every thing those small creatures do, through every smile and tear, with every breath they take....EVERYTHING we do effects THEM!

I am BEGGING anyone who is thinking about quitting and wants to know if their smoking REALLY effects their child, please know, YES it DOES!


Thomas is ok now. Never perfect...the treatments and weekly doctor visits, the weekened immune system from all of the steroids, smaller height due to a stunted growth from lack of oxygen and sooooooo many different meds. It will be years before I know all of the effects that so many drugs have done to him. Learning disabilities, behavior problems etc. For almost a full year, the highest his pulse ox got on his BEST day, was 93. It often dropped into the low 80's and during his RSV and his critical days last year once it got into the 78's, the nurse turned the bleeping box thing away from us. To give you an idea, if you're in the low 80's, you're usually showing purplish or bluish coloration in your lips. (For those who don't know, your pulse ox is the amount of oxygen in your blood stream, normal folks are usually 99~100.) I very much dread the day, when he asks me why he is like this.

Some people think what I thought. Asthma is no big deal....just carry around an inhaler and take a puff as needed. They're wrong. Kids still die from asthma. And two big factors are genetics and smoking.
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John Gold
Joined: 20 Jan 2009, 21:43

06 Jun 2007, 09:44 #50


Nicotine alters lung branching morphogenesis through the {alpha}7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

Journal: American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology, June 1, 2007

Authors: Wongtrakool C, Roser-Page S, Rivera HN, Roman J.

Pulmonary, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, United States.

There is abundant epidemiologic data linking prenatal environmental tobacco smoke with childhood asthma and wheezing, but the underlying molecular and physiologic mechanisms that occur in utero to explain this link remain unelucidated. Several studies suggest that nicotine, which traverses the placenta, is a causative agent. Therefore, we studied the effects of nicotine on lung branching morphogenesis using embryonic murine lung explants.

We found that the expression of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which mediate many of the biological effects of nicotine, is highest in pseudoglandular stage lungs when compared to later stages. We then studied the effects of nicotine in the explant model and found that nicotine stimulated lung branching in a dose-dependent fashion. alpha-bungarotoxin, an antagonist of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, blocked the stimulatory effect of nicotine, whereas GTS-21, a specific agonist, stimulated branching thereby mimicking the effects of nicotine. Explants deficient in alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors did not respond to nicotine. Nicotine also stimulated the growth of the explant.

Altogether, these studies suggest that nicotine stimulates lung branching morphogenesis through alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and may contribute to dysanaptic lung growth which, in turn, may predispose the host to airways disease in the postnatal period.

Key words: nicotine, branching morphogenesis, lung growth, nicotinic receptors.
PMID: 17545491 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Source link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entre ... h=17545491
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