Smoking and Pregnancy

Joined: 18 Dec 2008, 23:57

02 Feb 2003, 00:34 #31

From Join Together Online:



Many Women Return to Smoking After Pregnancy

1/31/2003

Although more women are quitting smoking during pregnancy, a new study finds that many return to cigarettes during the post-natal period, Health 24 reported Jan. 27.

The study analyzed surveys conducted from 1993 to 1999 involving 115,000 new mothers from 10 U.S. states. The data showed that 51 percent of pregnant women quit smoking in 1999, but half of them resumed smoking within six months of giving birth.

Those more likely to begin smoking again were teenagers and heavy smokers.

Based on the study's findings, author Dr. Gregory Colman of Pace University in New York recommended that doctors encourage women to stay away from cigarettes after their baby is born by emphasizing the dangers of secondhand smoke to infants.

The study is published in the January 2003 issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

Colman, G., & Joyce, T. (2003) Trends in smoking before, during, and after pregnancy in ten states. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 24(1): 29-35.
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Joined: 18 Dec 2008, 23:57

24 Mar 2003, 21:24 #32

For Vickie:

The real "personal" benefit of quitting smoking when you are pregnant is that you have finally freed yourself smoking. That benefit is the same even if you quit when you are not pregnant. To keep your personal Freedom is as simple as always remembering to never take another puff!

Joel
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Joined: 18 Dec 2008, 23:57

28 Mar 2003, 20:48 #33

Study: Smoking During Pregnancy Impairs Fetal Development

British research finds that women who smoke during pregnancy risk having smaller babies with smaller brains, Reuters reported March 24.

According to researchers at University College London, smoking damages the placenta and reduces levels of a critical growth hormone.

"The profound effects of smoking on fetal development are irreversible and may cause impairment in the health and well-being of the offspring in later life," said Dr. Peter Hindmarsh, lead author of the study. "In particular, the reduced brain size that we saw in smokers' babies could lead to impaired cognitive ability of the child."

The study involved 1,650 expectant mothers, including 200 who smoked throughout their pregnancy. The researchers measured blood flow between the fetus and placenta and monitored levels of insulin-like growth factors (IGF), a group of hormones essential to fetal growth and organ development.

After birth, the researchers weighed the newborns and measured their head size to determine brain size.

The study found that blood flow in the artery joining the fetus to the placenta was lower in women who smoked. This resulted in damage to the placenta and restricted the delivery of essential nutrients.

In addition, there was a lower amount of IGF in umbilical-cord blood among women who smoked. The levels varied, based on how many cigarettes the mother smoked.

"What we're talking about are reductions of about 10 to 15 percent in IGF levels, producing rather similar reductions in overall birth size, birth length, and head growth," said Hindmarsh.

Hindmarsh presented the study's findings at the annual meeting of the British Endocrine Societies, held recently in Glasgow, Scotland.
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Joined: 20 Jan 2009, 21:43

14 Jun 2004, 18:54 #34


SIDS prevention--good progress,
but now we need to focus on avoiding nicotine.

Acta Paediatr. 2004 April;93(4):450-2.

Sundell HW.

Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-2585, USA. [url=mailto:hakan.sundell@vanderbilt.edu]hakan.sundell@vanderbilt.edu[/url]

Chong et al. examined risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) before and after the start of the Swedish campaign to reduce the risk of SIDS. They found that maternal smoking was the strongest risk factor for SIDS in the post-campaign compared to the pre-campaign period.

CONCLUSION: After successful results of the SIDS campaigns to prevent prone sleeping, strong efforts need to be undertaken to eliminate maternal smoking during pregnancy altogether without replacing cigarette smoking with other nicotine delivery devices such as snuff, gum or patches.

Publication Types:
PMID: 15188968 [PubMed - in process]

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Joined: 20 Jan 2009, 21:43

14 Jun 2004, 19:23 #35

Other discussions, studies and articles in this thread include ...
  • Message 2 & Message 3 Quitting during pregnancy sometimes seeming absurdly easy (Joel)
  • Message 7 Postpartum return to smoking among usual smokers who quit during pregnancy (2001 study)
  • Message 8, Message 11 NRT during pregnancy (Joel)
  • Message 13 Smoking, Sex and Reproduction (ASH Fact Sheet)
  • Message 17 Mothers who smoke may be hearing from colicky babies (2001 news article)
  • Message 18 Prenatal Nicotine Exposure Evokes Alterations of Cell Structure in Hippocampus and Somatosensory Cortex (2002 study)
  • Message 24 Nicotinic receptor expression following nicotine exposure via maternal milk (2002 study)
  • Message 25 Fetal Nicotine Exposure Tied to Breathing Problems (2002 news article)
  • Message 26 Altered Breathing Pattern after Prenatal Nicotine Exposure in the Young Lamb (2002 study)
  • Message 27 Smoking Moms Boost Unborn Babies' Autism Risk (2002 news article)
  • Message 28 When Moms Smoke, Certain Kids Are More Vulnerable to Respiratory Disease; Children With Key Common Genetic Variation Are More Susceptible to Asthma and Other Breathing Problems If Exposed to Tobacco in Womb (2002 news article)
  • Message 30 Study Suggests Why Cigarette Smoke a SIDS Risk (2002 news article)
  • Message 36 Joel discussing how quitting for the fetus or baby is not quitting for you.
  • Message 37 Joel discussing post-partum relapse
  • Message 38 Dangers of smoking while pregnant need to be emphasized by health care providers (2002 article)
  • Message 39 A reexamination of smoking before, during, and after pregnacy (2002 study)
  • Message 42 Many Women Return to Smoking After Pregnancy (2003 article)
  • Message 47 Study: Smoking During Pregnancy Impairs Fetal Development (2003 article)
  • Message 54 SIDS prevention--good progress, but now we need to focus on avoiding nicotine (2004 study)
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Joined: 18 Dec 2008, 23:58

29 Sep 2004, 02:24 #36

Thanks very much!!
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Joined: 19 Dec 2008, 01:33

29 Sep 2004, 10:13 #37

Thank you for this string. This has been so appropriate in my life. For my first two pregnancies, I quit smoking easily. However, I did it for my child- not for me. I immediately relapsed right after both children were born. I am currently pregnant again. However, this time I quit and joined this site months before becoming pregnant. I quit this time for me. Thanks!

Jen

I have been quit for 5 Months, 3 Weeks, 1 Day, 23 hours, 15 minutes and 44 seconds (175 days). I have saved $874.55 by not smoking 4,927 cigarettes. I have saved 2 Weeks, 3 Days, 2 hours and 35 minutes of my life. My Quit Date: 4/5/2004
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Joined: 18 Dec 2008, 23:57

05 Mar 2005, 06:27 #38

From above:
FACT SHEET NO. 7 July 2001

SMOKING, SEX & REPRODUCTION

Introduction

Cigarette smoking can affect women's fertility; men's fertility; sexual function in men; pregnant women's health; the health of an unborn child; and the health of young children.

Fertility

Women who smoke may have reduced fertility. One study found that 38% of non-smokers conceived in their first cycle compared with 28% of smokers. Smokers were 3.4 times more likely than non-smokers to have taken more than one year to conceive. It was estimated that the fertility of smoking women was 72% that of non-smokers.[1] A recent British study found that both active and passive smoking was associated with delayed conception.[2] Cigarette smoking may also affect male fertility: spermatozoa from smokers has been found to be decreased in density and motility compared with that of non-smokers.[3]

Male sexual impotence

Impotence, or penile erectile dysfuntion, is the repeated inability to have or maintain an erection. One US study of men between the ages of 31 and 49 showed a 50% increase in the risk of impotence among smokers compared with men who had never smoked.[4] Another US study, of patients attending an impotence clinic, found that the number of current and ex-smokers (81%) was significantly higher than would be expected in the general population (58%).[5]

Overall smoking increases the risk of impotence by around 50% for men in their 30s and 40s. ASH and the British Medical Association have calculated that around 120,000 UK men in this age group are needlessly impotent as a result of smoking.[6]

Smoking and oral contraceptives

For younger women, smoking and the use of oral contraceptives increases the risk of a heart attack, stroke or other cardiovascular disease by tenfold. This effect is even more marked in women over 45.[7] It is therefore important that all women who take the contraceptive pill be advised not to smoke.

Smoking and pregnancy

Approximately one-quarter of pregnant women in the UK smoke. Women who smoke in pregnancy are more likely to be younger, single, of lower educational achievement and in unskilled occupations. The male partner is more likely to smoke. Only one in four women who smoke succeed in stopping at some time during pregnancy. Almost two-thirds of women who succeed in stopping smoking in pregnancy restart again after the birth of their baby.[8] In December 1998, the Government set a target to reduce the percentage of women who smoked during pregnancy from 23% to 15% by the year 2010, with a fall to 18% by 2005.[9] This will mean approximately 55,000 fewer women in England who smoke during pregnancy.

Foetal growth and birth weight

Babies born to women who smoke are on average 200 grams (8 ozs) lighter than babies born to comparable non-smoking mothers. Furthermore, the more cigarettes a woman smokes during pregnancy, the greater the probable reduction in birth weight. Low birth weight is associated with higher risks of death and disease in infancy and early childhood. The adverse effects of smoking in pregnancy are due mainly to smoking in the second and third trimesters. Therefore, if a woman stops smoking within the first three months of pregnancy, her risk of having a low‑weight baby will be similar to that of a non-smoker. 8

Spontaneous abortion

The rate of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage) is substantially higher in women who smoke. This is the case even when other factors have been taken into account.8

Other complications of pregnancy

On average, smokers have more complications of pregnancy and labour which can include bleeding during pregnancy, premature detachment of the placenta and premature rupture of the membranes.[10] Some studies have also revealed a link between smoking and ectopic pregnancy 10 and congenital defects in the offspring of smokers.[11]

Perinatal mortality

Perinatal mortality (defined as still‑birth or death of an infant within the first week of life) is increased by about one-third in babies of smokers. This is equivalent to approximately 420 deaths per year in England and Wales. The increased perinatal mortality in smoking mothers occurs particularly among manual socio-economic groups and in groups that are already at high risk of perinatal death, such as older mothers or those who have had a previous perinatal death. More than one-quarter of the risk of death due to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (cot death) is attributable to maternal smoking (equivalent to 365 deaths per year in England and Wales).8

Passive smoking and pregnancy

Exposure by the mother to passive smoking has also been associated with lower birth weight, a higher risk of perinatal mortality and spontaneous abortion.[12]

Breast feeding

Research has shown that smoking cigarettes may contribute to inadequate breast milk production. In one study, fat concentrations were found to be lower in the milk from mothers who smoked and milk volumes were lower.[13]

Health and long‑term growth

Infants of parents who smoke are twice as likely to suffer from serious respiratory infection than the children of non-smokers. (See also Fact Sheet No. 8, Passive Smoking.) Smoking in pregnancy may also have implications for the long term physical growth and intellectual development of the child. It has been associated with a reduced height of children of smoking mothers as compared with non-smoking mothers, with lower attainments in reading and mathematics up to age 16 and even with the highest qualification achieved by the age of 23.[14] One study has demonstrated a link between maternal smoking during pregnancy and adult male crime.[15] There is also evidence that smoking interferes with women's hormonal balance during pregnancy and that this may have long-term consequences on the reproductive organs of her children.[16]

Smoking and cervical cancer

Epidemiological studies have found that women who smoke have up to four times higher risk of developing cervical cancer than non-smokers and that the risk increases with duration of smoking. Studies have demonstrated biochemical evidence that smoking is a causal factor in cervical cancer.[17][18]



Smoking and the menopause

The natural menopause occurs up to two years earlier in smokers. The likelihood of an earlier menopause is related to the number of cigarettes smoked, with those smoking more than ten cigarettes a day having an increased risk of an early menopause.[19] New research suggests that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in tobacco smoke can trigger premature egg cell death which may in turn lead to earlier menopause. [20]

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Joined: 18 Dec 2008, 23:57

22 Jul 2005, 02:50 #39

Quitting for pregnancy is a reason to start your quit. Staying off though is more comprehensive than this. There are many other benefits that go along with staying an ex-smoker that will stick with you throughout your entire life. To keep these benefits, always remember that the best way to improve "your" overall health and quality of life is to never take another puff!
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Joined: 18 Dec 2008, 23:57

10 Nov 2005, 20:56 #40

The idea of just quitting to get pregnant or having a baby can pose a risk after the baby is delivered. You can figure now that the risks are now gone, you quit for the important time period. But still keep in mind that even though you did your baby a favor by quitting, you really did yourself the bigger favor.
For not only did you reduce the risk to your baby, you reduced your risk of being sicker throughout your life and eventually dying prematurely--you increased your ability to be active with your baby, throughout his or her life, even when your baby becomes an adult. You increased the odds that you will be around to see your baby eventually have children of his or her own, and even then you can be an active participant in yet another generation, as opposed to an elderly person on oxygen who watches family events from the sidelines, if you can even go to see them at all.

Quitting for pregnancy is a reason to start your quit. Staying off though is more comprehensive than this. There are many other benefits that go along with staying an ex-smoker that will stick with you throughout your entire life. To keep these benefits, always remember that the best way to improve "your" overall health and quality of life is to never take another puff!

Joel
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Joined: 20 Jan 2009, 21:48

25 Dec 2005, 23:30 #41

The idea of just quitting to get pregnant or having a baby can pose a risk after the baby is delivered. You can figure now that the risks are now gone, you quit for the important time period. But still keep in mind that even though you did your baby a favor by quitting, you really did yourself the bigger favor.
For not only did you reduce the risk to your baby, you reduced your risk of being sicker throughout your life and eventually dying prematurely--you increased your ability to be active with your baby, throughout his or her life, even when your baby becomes an adult. You increased the odds that you will be around to see your baby eventually have children of his or her own, and even then you can be an active participant in yet another generation, as opposed to an elderly person on oxygen who watches family events from the sidelines, if you can even go to see them at all.

Quitting for pregnancy is a reason to start your quit. Staying off though is more comprehensive than this. There are many other benefits that go along with staying an ex-smoker that will stick with you throughout your entire life. To keep these benefits, always remember that the best way to improve "your" overall health and quality of life is to never take another puff!

Joel
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Joined: 20 Jan 2009, 21:43

31 Jan 2006, 10:48 #42

Mode of action: disruption of brain cell replication, second messenger, and neurotransmitter systems during development leading to cognitive dysfunction--developmental neurotoxicity of nicotine.
Critical Reviews in Toxicology 2005 Oct-Nov;35(8-9):703-11.


Slikker W Jr, Xu Z, Levin ED, Slotkin TA.

Division of Neurotoxicology, NCTR/FDA, Jefferson, Arkansas 72079, USA. [url=mailto:wslikker@nctr.fda.gov]wslikker@nctr.fda.gov[/url]

Developmental exposure to nicotine in rats results in neurobehavioral effects such as reduced locomotor and cognitive function. Key events in the animal mode of action (MOA) include binding to the nicotinic cholinergic receptor during prenatal and/or early postnatal development. This leads to premature onset of cell differentiation at the expense of cell replication, which leads to brain cell death or structural alterations in regional brain areas.
Other events include an initial increase followed by a decrease in adenyl cyclase activity, as well as effects on the noradrenergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic neurotransmitter systems. Because the nicotine receptor is also present in the developing human brain and the underlying biology for DNA synthesis and cell signaling is comparable, this MOA is likely to be relevant for humans.
Although the effects of nicotine exposure in developing humans is not well documented, nicotine exposure as a result of cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with several physiological and behavioral outcomes that are reminiscent of the effects of nicotine alone in animal models. As data become available with the advent of the use of the nicotine patch in pregnant humans, the question as to the relative importance of smoking per se versus nicotine alone may be determined.

PMID: 16417037 [PubMed - in process]
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Joined: 20 Jan 2009, 21:43

31 Jan 2006, 10:58 #43

If you are pregnant and reading this message Dr. Slotkin of Duke Medical University, who is referenced in the above study, has a few words he wants to read and think about. Please keep in mind that Dr. Slotkin is one of the world's lead toxicologists studying nicotine's path of destruction during fetal animal development.

From: Theodore Slotkin [url=mailto:t.slotkin@duke.edu]t.slotkin@duke.edu[/url]
To: John R. Polito
[url=mailto:john@whyquit.com]john@whyquit.com[/url]
Sent: Monday, January 09, 2006 11:33 AM
Subject: Re: NRT pregnancy use


I certainly have no objections to your sharing my comments - I'm on record for this information in a number of reviews and primary research papers, and I think it's important to get that information out to practitioners and to smokers.


One of my main concerns is that, although NRT is fine for smoking cessation in nonpregnant smokers, the assumption that it is safe in pregnancy leads people away from thinking about more effective (albeit more costly) ways of addressing the issue. It's easy to dispense drugs (even if they don't work and cause damage to the fetus, and damage to the developing brain doesn't show up as an obvious "birth defect") and although it's harder to go one-on-one with a pregnant smoker to try to get the desired results, it's probably more effective. Also, the patch is the "easiest" NRT approach, and it turns out that this is the absolute worst form of nicotine administration for the fetus.

Essentially, achieving a continuous steady-state plasma level of nicotine in the mother removes the protective effect of the placenta (delay of entry to fetus, partial catabolism of nicotine) because all water spaces become saturated with nicotine. A recent paper from Walter Lichtensteiger's group showed that the brains of fetal mice wound up with 3x the nicotine concentration found in maternal plasma when a continuous administration paradigm was used.

So NRT might be OK, but not on a continuous basis - at the very least, removing the patch at night would allow for some "wash-out" from the fetus (but probably not much, since fetal clearance of nicotine is lower than in mom). Beyond that, there is still the nagging problem that the only two controlled studies on quit rate in pregnant smokers found no help from NRT. So promoting NRT in pregnancy still needs someone to show that the benefits outweigh the risks.

Regards,


Ted Slotkin
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Joined: 18 Dec 2008, 23:57

04 Sep 2006, 21:50 #44

It is important for women who are in the stage of their lives of family planning take their smoking into consideration. The idea of just quitting to get pregnant or having a baby can pose a risk after the baby is delivered. You can figure now that the risks are now gone, you quit for the important time period. But still keep in mind that even though you did your baby a favor by quitting, you really did yourself the bigger favor.

For not only did you reduce the risk to your baby, you reduced your risk of being sicker throughout your life and eventually dying prematurely--you increased your ability to be active with your baby, throughout his or her life, even when your baby becomes an adult. You increased the odds that you will be around to see your baby eventually have children of his or her own, and even then you can be an active participant in yet another generation, as opposed to an elderly person on oxygen who watches family events from the sidelines, if you can even go to see them at all.

Quitting for pregnancy is a reason to start your quit. Staying off though is more comprehensive than this. There are many other benefits that go along with staying an ex-smoker that will stick with you throughout your entire life. To keep these benefits, always remember that the best way to improve "your" overall health and quality of life is to never take another puff!

Joel
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Joined: 18 Dec 2008, 23:57

06 Sep 2006, 14:11 #45

I quit when I got pregnant with my son....i think i smoked another week after learning i was pregnant and just couldn't anymore...i didn't want to hurt my unborn child. He was born healthy and happy March.1/ 05...I breast fed him for 8 months...the day i switched to formula is the day i started smoking again!!!!!

I am pregnant again...with a sibling for my sweet baby....this time...i was smoke free for over 2 months BEFORE I got pregnant. The difference this time...i had quit for myself..for my body!!! I will never smoke again....i am an addict and will stay in recovery!
NTAP!!!!!
Gosh...don't smoke while pregnant...don't smoke while bf...don't smoke around your children...it is not only harmful to them but as they watch you..your teaching them to be addicts!!!!!

I have been quit for 5 Months, 1 Week, 4 Days, 6 minutes and 55 seconds (164 days). I have saved $770.81 by not smoking 1,312 cigarettes. I have saved 4 Days, 13 hours and 20 minutes of my life.
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Joined: 16 Jan 2003, 08:00

24 Sep 2006, 03:12 #46

From: John (Gold) Sent: 1/30/2006 8:58 PM
If you are pregnant and reading this message Dr. Slotkin of Duke Medical University, who is referenced in the above study, has a few words he wants to read and think about. Please keep in mind that Dr. Slotkin is one of the world's lead toxicologists studying nicotine's path of destruction during fetal animal development.

From: Theodore Slotkin [url=mailto:t.slotkin@duke.edu]t.slotkin@duke.edu[/url]
To: John R. Polito
[url=mailto:john@whyquit.com]john@whyquit.com[/url]
Sent: Monday, January 09, 2006 11:33 AM
Subject: Re: NRT pregnancy use


I certainly have no objections to your sharing my comments - I'm on record for this information in a number of reviews and primary research papers, and I think it's important to get that information out to practitioners and to smokers.


One of my main concerns is that, although NRT is fine for smoking cessation in nonpregnant smokers, the assumption that it is safe in pregnancy leads people away from thinking about more effective (albeit more costly) ways of addressing the issue. It's easy to dispense drugs (even if they don't work and cause damage to the fetus, and damage to the developing brain doesn't show up as an obvious "birth defect") and although it's harder to go one-on-one with a pregnant smoker to try to get the desired results, it's probably more effective. Also, the patch is the "easiest" NRT approach, and it turns out that this is the absolute worst form of nicotine administration for the fetus.

Essentially, achieving a continuous steady-state plasma level of nicotine in the mother removes the protective effect of the placenta (delay of entry to fetus, partial catabolism of nicotine) because all water spaces become saturated with nicotine. A recent paper from Walter Lichtensteiger's group showed that the brains of fetal mice wound up with 3x the nicotine concentration found in maternal plasma when a continuous administration paradigm was used.

So NRT might be OK, but not on a continuous basis - at the very least, removing the patch at night would allow for some "wash-out" from the fetus (but probably not much, since fetal clearance of nicotine is lower than in mom). Beyond that, there is still the nagging problem that the only two controlled studies on quit rate in pregnant smokers found no help from NRT. So promoting NRT in pregnancy still needs someone to show that the benefits outweigh the risks.

Regards,


Ted Slotkin
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Joined: 20 Jan 2009, 21:43

15 Feb 2007, 00:56 #47

Critical Review:
Nicotine for the Fetus,
the Infant and the Adolescent?

http://whyquit.com/NRT/studies/Ginzel_et_al_12_2.pdf
Last edited by John Gold on 08 Dec 2013, 21:51, edited 1 time in total.
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Joined: 20 Jan 2009, 21:43

23 Mar 2007, 21:16 #48

Study: Nicotine reduces attention capacity
NEW HAVEN, Conn., March 22 (UPI) --U.S. scientists have determined exposure to nicotine might diminish a person's attention capacity.
Yale University researchers led by Leslie Jacobsen found teenage smokers who were also exposed to nicotine before birth showed a dramatic reduction in attention capacities related to vision and hearing. The scientists also demonstrated male and female attention capacities are affected by the exposure in different ways.


Jacobsen's team determined girls who smoke and were subject to nicotine exposure in the womb performed most poorly in both visual and auditory attention tasks. In boys, nicotine exposure had a greater effect on auditory attention, suggesting brain regions involved in auditory attention might be more vulnerable to nicotine in males.


The researchers believe the gender-specific effects may result from differences in hormonal control of nicotine's actions.


The study appears in the journal Neuropsychopharmacology.

Source link:

http://www.upi.com/NewsTrack/Science/20 ... 351-1235r/
© Copyright 2007 United Press International, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
----------------------------
Gender-Specific Effects of Prenatal and Adolescent Exposure to Tobacco Smoke on Auditory and Visual Attention.
Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007 March Volume 21
Jacobsen LK, Slotkin TA, Mencl WE, Frost SJ, Pugh KR.
[1] 1Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA [2] 2Department of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA [3] 3Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, CT, USA.
Prenatal exposure to active maternal tobacco smoking elevates risk of cognitive and auditory processing deficits, and of smoking in offspring. Recent preclinical work has demonstrated a sex-specific pattern of reduction in cortical cholinergic markers following prenatal, adolescent, or combined prenatal and adolescent exposure to nicotine, the primary psychoactive component of tobacco smoke.
Given the importance of cortical cholinergic neurotransmission to attentional function, we examined auditory and visual selective and divided attention in 181 male and female adolescent smokers and nonsmokers with and without prenatal exposure to maternal smoking. Groups did not differ in age, educational attainment, symptoms of inattention, or years of parent education. A subset of 63 subjects also underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing an auditory and visual selective and divided attention task.
Among females, exposure to tobacco smoke during prenatal or adolescent development was associated with reductions in auditory and visual attention performance accuracy that were greatest in female smokers with prenatal exposure (combined exposure). Among males, combined exposure was associated with marked deficits in auditory attention, suggesting greater vulnerability of neurocircuitry supporting auditory attention to insult stemming from developmental exposure to tobacco smoke in males. Activation of brain regions that support auditory attention was greater in adolescents with prenatal or adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke relative to adolescents with neither prenatal nor adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke.
These findings extend earlier preclinical work and suggest that, in humans, prenatal and adolescent exposure to nicotine exerts gender-specific deleterious effects on auditory and visual attention, with concomitant alterations in the efficiency of neurocircuitry supporting auditory attention.
Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 21 March 2007; doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1301398.
PMID: 17375135 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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Joined: 19 Dec 2008, 00:35

22 Apr 2007, 09:35 #49

I feel a need to respond to this. Through my own shame about smoking around young kids. While I literally couldn't smoke while pregant, due to being in the hospital on bedrest for MONTHS! (Boy did that wreak havoc on my nerves!), I ALWAYS lit up on walking out the door after ny babys birth. As soon as that baby came out I'd wheel myself outside and puff away. (gestational diabetes and all)


Anyway, just to run home for any lurkers just thinking about quitting right now, but maybe they're not ready, I'm going to confess to you and to myself, my childrens problems due to my smoking. (Like in the car with the windows down, thinking that will be plenty of ventilation!)

My oldest is 14, with mild asthma, but when she was born, I wasn't even a smoker yet, but it should have given me a clue, that it was in the gene pool! I have smoked for 12 years. He asthama developed at 3 years. Do the math.

My 7 year old has moderate to severe asthma.

My 2 year old has been close to losing his life on several occassions. He's Severe. They actaully thought Cystic Fibrosis. The fluid in his lungs would not go away. It built up for year. He had a sweat test, but when that was negative, they did a test to check the DNA for any CF markers. That was neg. Let me tell about his life and mine. We wake up every morning to a pill (not supposed to put names of meds on here I think), then a tsp of liquid, followed by a mask connected to a nebulizer, two, one a steroid (that takes 15 minutes), the other a bronchial dialater (another 15 minutes). He does those treatments every for hours, 24/7. If I skip, there are days when his fingertips, tint a bluish color. Last year, he contracted RSV (a virus that severly effects babies lungs and can be fatal). The night he went into the hospital, he didn't even have the strength to open his eyes. When they flew him to Cleveland, they rushed to connect him to all this equipment. We had to sign a form saying we gave permission for intubation if it became neccessary. There was big bed, no cribs. The nurse said that the toddlers in this ward didn't need cribs, because they were all so ill, they couldn't roll off the bed. They couldn't move! At around 10:30 pm I asked the nurse why my son was making that horrible grunting cry and that maybe he was hurting. She said he wasn't hurting, he was gasping for air. My beautiful Thomas couldn't breath. Alot of people came into the room. They were giving him so many drugs and then more drugs to counteract the side effects of the drugs they had just given him.

Our lowest point...and I'll never forget this (heck, I'm crying now, just remembering), "Mike and Debbie, we've reached the point were your son is not progressing and we may need to start thinking about what might make him more comfortable at this point."

Of course stupid me "I don't know what you mean, what are saying"

My husbands in the corner of the room, balled up and sobbing.

At that point I asked the doctor to please leave the room, I couldn't talk right now. Please leave me alone with my son.


We held Thomas all through the night. He was hugging my chest. I prayed like I have NEVER prayed in my life. I bargained and begged. A couple hours later, all of those miracle drugs finally started to do their job.

Don't for a minute pity or tell me this wasn't my fault. I KNOW more then I know anything in this world, that my smoking and my husbands smoking contibuted to the illness that my son will live with for the rest of his life.

With every thing those small creatures do, through every smile and tear, with every breath they take....EVERYTHING we do effects THEM!

I am BEGGING anyone who is thinking about quitting and wants to know if their smoking REALLY effects their child, please know, YES it DOES!


Thomas is ok now. Never perfect...the treatments and weekly doctor visits, the weekened immune system from all of the steroids, smaller height due to a stunted growth from lack of oxygen and sooooooo many different meds. It will be years before I know all of the effects that so many drugs have done to him. Learning disabilities, behavior problems etc. For almost a full year, the highest his pulse ox got on his BEST day, was 93. It often dropped into the low 80's and during his RSV and his critical days last year once it got into the 78's, the nurse turned the bleeping box thing away from us. To give you an idea, if you're in the low 80's, you're usually showing purplish or bluish coloration in your lips. (For those who don't know, your pulse ox is the amount of oxygen in your blood stream, normal folks are usually 99~100.) I very much dread the day, when he asks me why he is like this.

Some people think what I thought. Asthma is no big deal....just carry around an inhaler and take a puff as needed. They're wrong. Kids still die from asthma. And two big factors are genetics and smoking.
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Joined: 20 Jan 2009, 21:43

06 Jun 2007, 09:44 #50


Nicotine alters lung branching morphogenesis through the {alpha}7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

Journal: American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology, June 1, 2007

Authors: Wongtrakool C, Roser-Page S, Rivera HN, Roman J.

Pulmonary, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, United States.

There is abundant epidemiologic data linking prenatal environmental tobacco smoke with childhood asthma and wheezing, but the underlying molecular and physiologic mechanisms that occur in utero to explain this link remain unelucidated. Several studies suggest that nicotine, which traverses the placenta, is a causative agent. Therefore, we studied the effects of nicotine on lung branching morphogenesis using embryonic murine lung explants.

We found that the expression of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which mediate many of the biological effects of nicotine, is highest in pseudoglandular stage lungs when compared to later stages. We then studied the effects of nicotine in the explant model and found that nicotine stimulated lung branching in a dose-dependent fashion. alpha-bungarotoxin, an antagonist of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, blocked the stimulatory effect of nicotine, whereas GTS-21, a specific agonist, stimulated branching thereby mimicking the effects of nicotine. Explants deficient in alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors did not respond to nicotine. Nicotine also stimulated the growth of the explant.

Altogether, these studies suggest that nicotine stimulates lung branching morphogenesis through alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and may contribute to dysanaptic lung growth which, in turn, may predispose the host to airways disease in the postnatal period.

Key words: nicotine, branching morphogenesis, lung growth, nicotinic receptors.
PMID: 17545491 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Source link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entre ... h=17545491
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Joined: 18 Dec 2008, 23:57

03 Aug 2007, 06:41 #51

It is important for women who are in the stage of their lives of family planning take their smoking into consideration. The idea of just quitting to get pregnant or having a baby can pose a risk after the baby is delivered. You can figure now that the risks are now gone, you quit for the important time period. But still keep in mind that even though you did your baby a favor by quitting, you really did yourself the bigger favor.

For not only did you reduce the risk to your baby, you reduced your risk of being sicker throughout your life and eventually dying prematurely--you increased your ability to be active with your baby, throughout his or her life, even when your baby becomes an adult. You increased the odds that you will be around to see your baby eventually have children of his or her own, and even then you can be an active participant in yet another generation, as opposed to an elderly person on oxygen who watches family events from the sidelines, if you can even go to see them at all.

Quitting for pregnancy is a reason to start your quit. Staying off though is more comprehensive than this. There are many other benefits that go along with staying an ex-smoker that will stick with you throughout your entire life. To keep these benefits, always remember that the best way to improve "your" overall health and quality of life is to never take another puff!

Joel
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Joined: 19 Dec 2008, 00:25

24 Apr 2008, 03:46 #52

I'm bumping this up for "ForeverOptimist" from another forum outside MSN, in the hopes that she took my offer to help for what it was--one addict hoping to help another.

One day at a time, one minute at a time if you have to. Do it for your baby, but it's important to do it for yourself too! Best of luck~

YQS~
MareBear
(cl-mhm127 elsewhere)

Almost 6 years free! If I can do it, you can too!
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Joined: 11 Nov 2008, 19:22

08 Dec 2013, 22:10 #53

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