Smoking and Pancreatic Cancer

Smoking and Pancreatic Cancer

FreedomNicotine
Joined: 06 Dec 2008, 16:58

11 Jul 2009, 03:47 #1

Cigarette Smoking and Pancreatic Cancer:
A Pooled Analysis From the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium

American Journal of Epidemiology, 2009 Jun 26. [Epub ahead of print]

Lynch SM, Vrieling A, Lubin JH, Kraft P, Mendelsohn JB, Hartge P, Canzian F, Steplowski E, Arslan AA, Gross M, Helzlsouer K, Jacobs EJ, Lacroix A, Petersen G, Zheng W, Albanes D, Amundadottir L, Bingham SA, Boffetta P, Boutron-Ruault MC, Chanock SJ, Clipp S, Hoover RN, Jacobs K, Johnson KC, Kooperberg C, Luo J, Messina C, Palli D, Patel AV, Riboli E, Shu XO, Rodriguez Suarez L, Thomas G, Tjønneland A, Tobias GS, Tong E, Trichopoulos D, Virtamo J, Ye W, Yu K, Zeleniuch-Jacquette A, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ.

Abstract

Smoking is an established risk factor for pancreatic cancer; however, detailed examination of the association of smoking intensity, smoking duration, and cumulative smoking dose with pancreatic cancer is limited. The authors analyzed pooled data from the international Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium nested case-control study (1,481 cases, 1,539 controls). Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by using unconditional logistic regression. Smoking intensity effects were examined with an excess odds ratio model that was linear in pack-years and exponential in cigarettes smoked per day and its square.

When compared with never smokers, current smokers had a significantly elevated risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38, 2.26). Risk increased significantly with greater intensity (>/=30 cigarettes/day: OR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.27, 2.42), duration (>/=50 years: OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.25, 3.62), and cumulative smoking dose (>/=40 pack-years: OR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.35, 2.34). Risk more than 15 years after smoking cessation was similar to that for never smokers.

Estimates of excess odds ratio per pack-year declined with increasing intensity, suggesting greater risk for total exposure delivered at lower intensity for longer duration than for higher intensity for shorter duration. This finding and the decline in risk after smoking cessation suggest that smoking has a late-stage effect on pancreatic carcinogenesis.


Last edited by FreedomNicotine on 11 Jul 2009, 03:56, edited 2 times in total.
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FreedomNicotine
Joined: 06 Dec 2008, 16:58

11 Jul 2009, 03:54 #2

Background excerpts from the above new study:

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the fourth leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States (1) and the fifth worldwide (2). There is no effective screening test for pancreatic cancer; therefore, it is often diagnosed at an advanced stage, contributing to a 5-year survival rate of less than 5% (3). The incidence of pancreatic cancer is higher in men compared with women and, in the United States, in African Americans compared with Caucasians (3).

Cigarette smoking is a consistent risk factor for pancreatic cancer (4-7). History of diabetes, obesity, and family history of pancreatic cancer are also risk factors (8-11). Cigarette smoking may be responsible for approximately 20% of pancreatic cancer cases (12). A recent meta-analysis indicated that current cigarette smokers, compared with never smokers, have about a 2-fold risk of pancreatic cancer and that the risk increases incrementally with the number of cigarettes smoked and the number of years of smoking (12).

The magnitude of the effects of the different dimensions of smoking on pancreatic cancer risk varies because of small study sizes and differences in design characteristics (12). In particular, the level of risk associated with intensity, duration, and cumulative dose, and the change in risk with cigarette smoking cessation, need further elucidation to better understand their influence on pancreatic cancer.

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FreedomNicotine
Joined: 06 Dec 2008, 16:58

11 Jul 2009, 04:02 #3

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JohnPolito
Joined: 11 Nov 2008, 19:22

15 Sep 2009, 04:00 #4

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Patrick Swayze, star of "Dirty Dancing" and "Ghost" died at age 57 on September 14, 2009, after a two year battle with pancreatic cancer. A heavy smoker, Patrick openly admitted his belief that smoking likely contributed to causing his cancer. But even after being diagnosed with cancer he continued smoking, and with each puff inhaled the up to 81 cancer causing chemicals so far identified in cigarette smoke.

How much and how many cancer causing chemicals have built-up inside your body?

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Last edited by JohnPolito on 15 Sep 2009, 04:41, edited 1 time in total.
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JohnPolito
Joined: 11 Nov 2008, 19:22

15 Sep 2009, 04:02 #5

81 Cancer Causing Chemicals Have
So Far Been Identified in Cigarettes
Acetaldehyde
Acetamide
Acrylamide
Acrylonitrile
2-Amino-3,4-dimethyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ)
3-Amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido [4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1)
2-Amino-l-methyl-6-phenyl-1H-imidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhlP)
2-Amino-6-methyldipyrido[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-1)
3-Amino-l-methyl-5H-pyrido {4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2
2-Amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (MeAaC)
2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AaC)
4-Aminobiphenyl
2-Aminodipyrido[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-2)
0-Anisidine
Arsenic
Benz[a]anthracene
Benzene
Benzo[a]pyrene
Benzofluoranthene
Benzo[j]fluoranthene
Benzo[k]fluoranthene
Benzofuran
Beryllium
1,3-Butadiene
Cadmium
Catechol (1,2-benzenediol)
p-Chloroaniline
Chloroform
Cobalt
p,p'-DDT
Dibenz[a,h]acridine
Dibenz[a,j]acridine
Dibenz(a,h)anthracene
7H-Dibenzo[c,g]carbazole
Dibenzo(a,e)pyrene
Dibenzo(a,i)pyrene
Dibenzo(a,h)pyrene
Dibenzo(a,i)pyrene
Dibenzo(a,l)pyrene
3,4-Dihydroxycinnamic acid (caffeic acid)
Ethylbenzene
Ethylene oxide
Formaldehyde
Furan
Glycidol
Heptachlor
Hydrazine
Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene
IQ 92-Amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline)
Isoprene
Lead
5-Methyl-chrysene
2-Naphthylamine
Nitrobenzene
Nitrogen mustard
Nitromethane
2-Nitropropane
N-Nitrosodi-n-butylamine (NDBA)
N-Nitrosodi-n-propylamine (NDPA)
N-Nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA)
N-Nitrosodiethylamine (DEN)
N-Nitrosodimethylamine (DMN)
N-Nitrosoethylmethylamine (NEMA, MEN)
4-(N-Nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridinyl)-1-butanone (NNK)
N'-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN)
N-Nitrosopiperidine (NPIP, NPP)
N-Nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR, NPY)
Polonium-210 (Radon 222)
Propylene oxide
Safrole
Styrene
Tetrachloroethylene
o-Toluidine (2-methylaniline)
Trichloroethylene
Urethane (carbamic acid, ethyl ester)
Vinyl acetate
Vinyl chloride
4-Vinylcyclohexene
2,6-Xylidine (2,6-dimethylaniline)
Source: World Health Organization's
International Agency for Research on Cancer - (IARC)
June 2003[/size]
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JohnPolito
Joined: 11 Nov 2008, 19:22

15 Sep 2009, 04:36 #6

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JohnPolito
Joined: 11 Nov 2008, 19:22

15 Sep 2009, 04:47 #7

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