Smoking: A Crime Punishable By Death

Joanne Gold
Joanne Gold

August 26th, 2002, 1:08 am #11


.........Any smoker can quit, but unfortunately many don't know how.
Whatever the classification--murder, suicide or accident--the end result is the same. You still have a chance, you are alive, and you know how to quit. Take advantage of this knowledge. Don't become a smoking statistic - NEVER TAKE ANOTHER PUFF!
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Joel
Joel

October 5th, 2002, 8:49 pm #12

I saw the post today titled, I'm DYING for a cigarette!! The title and the explanation given by Tulip made me think of this post. Terms that are really descriptive of the situation and yet that the person uttering them totally misses the irony.

Well one term here that has no hidden or masked meaning is the final term of all my letters, that to stay smoke free is as simple and clear cut as just knowing to never take another puff!

Joel
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SkyDawg Gold
SkyDawg Gold

October 6th, 2002, 12:59 am #13

Reminds me of a saying I used to use when people commented on how hard it was to find an area to smoke in, or how fewer people were smoking now:
Yes, we're a dying breed.
I used it because I did recognize the irony in it, but somehow I kept smoking. mmmmmmm
SkyDawg
Last edited by SkyDawg Gold on July 7th, 2009, 2:14 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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Golddabler1
Golddabler1

March 25th, 2003, 7:46 pm #14

I had a thought that smoking was a kind of euthanasia but i now realise most of us would not choose to start and if we knew how doable it is we could stop.Rickdabler 2 weeks 1 day 7hrs 36mins 10seconds nicotine free.
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Toast GOLD
Toast GOLD

May 18th, 2003, 5:37 am #15

People smoking cigarettes can and do kill themselves.

The mother of a woman I know went to sleep with a lit cigarette this week and started a fire that burned her awfully - 2nd degree burns over most of her body. She lingered for a couple days in the hospital having had surgery and other treatments before dying. A dreadful, painful, and 100% preventable way to die.

Melissa
23 months
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Joel
Joel

October 8th, 2003, 12:54 am #16

For anyone questioning his or her resolve to stay smoke free.







Click on the cigarette below





It appears from the stories above that smoking is indeed a crime punishable by death.
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John Gold
John Gold

December 6th, 2003, 9:54 am #17

Smoking,
It's Not Like It's a Crime
...Yet!
Before sharing today's breaking news out of the UK we need to remind members that Freedom has a non-debate policy as debate does absolutely nothing to further our mission of every member staying nicotine free today, in fact it can be divisive of the group and we already know that many here have strong, different and abiding conviction social controls over smoking.
So then why do we share controversial news stories here at Freedom? As food for thought about society's struggle over how to handle the mounting health costs, productivity losses and death toll associated with nicotine dependency. Why be part of society's exercise in damage control when we can be out comfortably engaging life as us?
That being said, here's the latest as Lancet, a respected British medical journal, has recommended a ban on U.K. smoking and making it unlawful.

The Lancet, Volume 362, Number 9399 06 December 2003
Editorial

How do you sleep at night, Mr Blair?

Last week saw an unprecedented attack by the medical establishment of the UK on government health policy. In a letter to The Times on Nov 25, leaders of the 18 Royal Colleges of medicine and their faculties jointly condemn the failure of the UK government to introduce legislation to ban smoking in public places. Unlike parts of the USA (eg, California, Connecticut, Florida, and New York State), parts of Canada, Thailand, and south Australia, which have already introduced legislation, the UK government is sticking to its position that a voluntary code is sufficient. In response to the call in The Times, the Health Minister, Melanie Johnson, backed by John Reid, the Health Secretary, and Tony Blair, the Prime Minister, said that more needed to be done to persuade the public of the merits of a ban before it could be imposed. Meanwhile, the governments of Ireland, Norway, and the Netherlands are introducing bans on smoking in workplaces or inside all public places in 2004, and a European Directive is under consideration.
So is the UK government right? Does the UK public, in particular, need to be persuaded that a ban is needed? Naturally, the tobacco industry and its supporters are doing their best to persuade the public otherwise. Lord Harris of High Cross, a former chairman of the Freedom Organisation for the Right to Enjoy Smoking Tobacco (FOREST), argues that the Royal Colleges are indulging in headline-grabbing tactics because their case that passive smoking is harmful has suffered "a number of serious setbacks". Harris cites the BMJ's May 17 publication of a paper that did not show a causal link between environmental tobacco smoke and death. That research, which was funded by the tobacco industry, was highlighted on British American Tobacco's website the week of publication and continues to be described by BAT as "an important study which confirms that many of the estimates of the risks of public smoking are overstated in the extreme". What is absent from the BAT site and Harris's letter is any mention of the outpouring of letters to the BMJ questioning the methodology, and of course the funding, of this flawed study.
The UK public, though, is better at facing facts than its government, perhaps because the UK public does not have to consider directly the £9·3 billion per year raised in tax revenue on tobacco. Compared with that figure, the cost to the National Health Service of smoking-related diseases of £1·5 billion a year seems paltry. So does the £1 million the government spent on a television campaign with images of babies apparently smoking to illustrate the dangers to children of second-hand smoke, and the £138 million spent helping smokers to quit.
Most people--smokers and non-smokers--support restrictions on smoking in workplaces, and half even support restrictions in bars. 80% of people in the UK are non-smokers, and have the right to freedom from exposure to proven carcinogens. Employers who allow smoking in their workplaces are exposing their employees to a proven health hazard. And since restaurants, bars, and clubs are workplaces too, their owners have a duty to protect their workforces. It has been estimated that 1000 people a year in the UK alone die from second-hand tobacco smoke.
Second-hand smoke not only kills but also makes it more difficult for smokers to give up. Most smokers want to quit, but failure to provide smokefree working and social environments makes their goal more difficult to reach. In a report by the Royal College of Physicians, it is estimated that if all workplaces in the UK became smokefree, 300 000 would quit, saving 150 000 lives. Tobacco kills 4·2 million annually worldwide, and is estimated to kill over 10 million a year by the late 2020s. Nicotine is a highly addictive drug, and cigarettes are the most toxic and carcinogenic means of delivering nicotine. Calling for a ban on smoking in public places is a start, but it is missing the point. Tim Lord, the Chief Executive of the Tobacco Manufacturers' Association, believes that price is the main determinant of how many smokers there are. We disagree. Availability and acceptability are more important. If tobacco were an illegal substance, possession of cigarettes would become a crime, and the number of smokers would drastically fall. Cigarette smoking is a dangerous addiction. We should be doing a great deal more to prevent this disease and to help its victims. We call on Tony Blair's government to ban tobacco.

The Lancet
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John Gold
John Gold

March 10th, 2004, 8:58 pm #18

Actual Causes of Death
in the United States, 2000
Ali H. Mokdad, PhD; James S. Marks, MD, MPH; Donna F. Stroup, PhD, MSc; Julie L. Gerberding, MD, MPH
JAMA. March 10, 2004;291:1238-1245
Journal of the American Medical Association
Context Modifiable behavioral risk factors are leading causes of mortality in the United States. Quantifying these will provide insight into the effects of recent trends and the implications of missed prevention opportunities.
Objectives To identify and quantify the leading causes of mortality in the United States.
Design Comprehensive MEDLINE search of English-language articles that identified epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies linking risk behaviors and mortality. The search was initially restricted to articles published during or after 1990, but we later included relevant articles published in 1980 to December 31, 2002. Prevalence and relative risk were identified during the literature search. We used 2000 mortality data reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to identify the causes and number of deaths. The estimates of cause of death were computed by multiplying estimates of the cause-attributable fraction of preventable deaths with the total mortality data.
Main Outcome Measures Actual causes of death.
Results The leading causes of death in 2000 were tobacco (435 000 deaths; 18.1% of total US deaths), poor diet and physical inactivity (400 000 deaths; 16.6%), and alcohol consumption (85 000 deaths; 3.5%). Other actual causes of death were microbial agents (75 000), toxic agents (55 000), motor vehicle crashes (43 000), incidents involving firearms (29 000), sexual behaviors (20 000), and illicit use of drugs (17 000).
Conclusions These analyses show that smoking remains the leading cause of mortality. However, poor diet and physical inactivity may soon overtake tobacco as the leading cause of death. These findings, along with escalating health care costs and aging population, argue persuasively that the need to establish a more preventive orientation in the US health care and public health systems has become more urgent.
Author Affiliations: Division of Adult and Community Health (Dr Mokdad), Office of the Director (Drs Marks and Stroup), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion and Office of the Director (Dr Gerberding), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Ga.
© 2004 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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John Gold
John Gold

February 18th, 2005, 2:57 am #19

Last edited by John Gold on July 7th, 2009, 2:05 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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John Gold
John Gold

January 14th, 2006, 10:16 am #20

The Health Consequences of Smoking
A Report of The Surgeon General 2004


Smoking Among Adults in the United States: Cancer
  • Cancer is the second leading cause of death and was among the first diseases causally linked to smoking. (p. 39)
  • Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death, and cigarette smoking causes most cases. (p. 61)
  • Compared to nonsmokers, men who smoke are about 23 times more likely to develop lung cancer and women who smoke are about 13 times more likely. Smoking causes about 90% of lung cancer deaths in men and almost 80% in women. (p. 39)
  • In 2003, an estimated 171,900 new cases of lung cancer occurred and approximately 157,200 people died from lung cancer. (p. 42)
  • The 2004 Surgeon General's report adds more evidence to previous conclusions that smoking causes cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, lung, and bladder. (pp. 42, 62, 63, 116, 166)
  • Cancer-causing agents (carcinogens) in tobacco smoke damage important genes that control the growth of cells, causing them to grow abnormally or to reproduce too rapidly. (p. 44-45)
  • Cigarette smoking is a major cause of esophageal cancer in the United States. Reductions in smoking and smokeless tobacco use could prevent many of the approximately 12,300 new cases and 12,100 deaths from esophageal cancer that occur annually. (p. 119)
  • The combination of smoking and alcohol consumption causes most laryngeal cancer cases. In 2003, an estimated 3800 deaths occurred from laryngeal cancer. (p. 62)
  • In 2003, an estimated 57,400 new cases of bladder cancer were diagnosed and an estimated 12,500 died from the disease. (p. 166)
  • For smoking-attributable cancers, the risk generally increases with the number of cigarettes smoked and the number of years of smoking, and generally decreases after quitting completely. (pp. 39, 42)
  • Smoking cigarettes that have a lower yield of tar does not substantially reduce the risk for lung cancer. (p. 61)
  • Cigarette smoking increases the risk of developing mouth cancers. This risk also increases among people who smoke pipes and cigars. (p. 67)
  • Reductions in the number of people who smoke cigarettes, pipes, cigars, and other tobacco products or use smokeless tobacco could prevent most of the estimated 30,200 new cases and 7,800 deaths from oral cavity and pharynx cancers annually in the United States. (p. 67)
New cancers confirmed by this report
  • The 2004 Surgeon General's report newly identifies other cancers caused by smoking, including cancers of the stomach, cervix, kidney, and pancreas and acute myeloid leukemia. (pp. 137, 167, 170, 183, 254, 324-325)
  • In 2003, an estimated 22,400 new cases of stomach cancer were diagnosed, and an estimated 12,100 deaths were expected to occur. (p. 178)
  • Former smokers have lower rates of stomach cancer than those who continue to smoke. (p. 182)
  • For women, the risk of cervical cancer increases with the duration of smoking. (p. 169)
  • In 2003, an estimated 31,900 new cases of kidney cancer were diagnosed, and an estimated 11,900 people died from the disease. (p. 166)
  • In 2003, an estimated 30,700 new cases of pancreatic cancer were diagnosed, attributing to 30,000 deaths. The median time from diagnosis to death from pancreatic cancer is about 3 months. (p. 136)
  • In 2003, approximately 10,500 cases of acute myeloid leukemia were diagnosed in adults. (p. 252)
  • Benzene is a known cause of acute myeloid leukemia, and cigarette smoke is a major source of benzene exposure. Among U.S. smokers, 90% of benzene exposures come from cigarettes. (p. 252)
Smoking Among Adults: Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke
  • Coronary heart disease and stroke-the primary types of cardiovascular disease caused by smoking-are the first and third leading causes of death in the United States. More than 61 million Americans suffer from some form of cardiovascular disease, including high blood pressure, coronary heart disease, stroke, congestive heart failure, and other conditions. More than 2,600 Americans die every day because of cardiovascular diseases, about 1 death every 33 seconds. (p. 363)
  • Toxins in the blood from smoking cigarettes contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a progressive hardening of the arteries caused by the deposit of fatty plaques and the scarring and thickening of the artery wall. Inflammation of the artery wall and the development of blood clots can obstruct blood flow and cause heart attacks or strokes. (p. 364-365)
  • Smoking causes coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the United States. Coronary heart disease results from atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries. (p. 384, 407)
  • In 2003, an estimated 1.1 million Americans had a new or recurrent coronary attack. (p. 384)
  • Cigarette smoking has been associated with sudden cardiac death of all types in both men and women. (p. 387)
  • Smoking-related coronary heart disease may contribute to congestive heart failure. An estimated 4.6 million Americans have congestive heart failure and 43,000 die from it every year. (p. 387)
  • Smoking low-tar or low-nicotine cigarettes rather than regular cigarettes appears to have little effect on reducing the risk for coronary heart disease. (p. 386, 407)
  • Strokes are the third leading cause of death in the United States. Cigarette smoking is a major cause of strokes. (p. 393)
  • The U.S. incidence of stroke is estimated at 600,000 cases per year, and the one-year fatality rate is about 30%. (p. 393)
  • The risk of stroke decreases steadily after smoking cessation. Former smokers have the same stroke risk as nonsmokers after 5 to 15 years. (p. 394)
  • Smoking causes abdominal aortic aneurysm. (p. 397)
Smoking Among Adults in the United States: Respiratory Health
  • In 2001, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was the fourth leading cause of death in the United States, resulting in more than 118,000 deaths. More than 90% of these deaths were attributed to smoking. (p. 500)
  • According to the American Cancer Society's second Cancer Prevention Study, female smokers were nearly 13 times as likely to die from COPD as women who had never smoked. Male smokers were nearly 12 times as likely to die from COPD as men who had never smoked. (p. 500)
  • About 10 million people in the United States have been diagnosed with COPD, which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema. COPD is consistently among the top 10 most common chronic health conditions. (p. 499)
  • Smoking is related to chronic coughing and wheezing among adults. (p. 490, 509)
  • Smoking damages airways and alveoli of the lung, eventually leading to COPD. (p. 498)
  • Smokers are more likely than nonsmokers to have upper and lower respiratory tract infections, perhaps because smoking suppresses immune function. (p. 425, 447)
  • In general, smokers' lung function declines faster than that of nonsmokers. (p. 482)
Citation
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2004.
Last edited by John Gold on July 7th, 2009, 2:07 pm, edited 2 times in total.
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John Gold
John Gold

January 27th, 2008, 4:26 am #21

Big rise in lung cancer
Australia's Herald Sun
January 25, 2008


Kamahl Cogdon

AUSTRALIANS are paying a rising price for their past smoking sins, figures show.

Private health insurance claims for lung cancer have soared 21 per cent for women and 24 per cent for men in five years, despite smoking rates falling to record lows.

Health insurance giant MBF said the rise in lung cancer claims from 2002-06 was a deadly legacy of an era of few restrictions on sales of cigarettes and where they were smoked.

Quit Victoria director Fiona Sharkie said more than 80 per cent of lung cancer cases were caused by smoking, and the disease took about 20 years to develop.

Ms Sharkie said 30 per cent of Victorian women and 37 per cent of men smoked 20 years ago.

But now just 16 per cent of women and 20 per cent of men were smokers.

MBF chief medical office Christine Bennett said the rise in lung cancer claims for men was expected because they were heavier smokers than women.

But Ms Bennett said women were gaining.

"The growing number of lung cancer claims for women reflects the health and social impact of a period when the female smoking rate began catching up with that of men," she said.

"Our claims data shows women are paying a high health price for taking up smoking when there were few restrictions on cigarette sales, or curbs on smoking in public places.

"Australia has made significant progress in the past 20 years in reducing smoking rates but we are still experiencing an unfortunate health care legacy."

Ms Sharkie said the fall in Victorian smoking rates was already being reflected in declining numbers of lung cancer cases in the state.

But nationally, lung cancer has risen steadily over the past 20 years, from 6349 new cases in 1986 to an estimated 9187 new cases in 2006, and a forecast 10,302 new cases in 2011.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare figures show the disease claimed the lives of 4733 men and 2531 women in 2004.


Source: http://www.news.com.au/... (Herald Sun)
Copyright Herald Sun 2008 - All Rights Reserved
Last edited by John Gold on July 7th, 2009, 2:10 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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John Gold
John Gold

April 1st, 2008, 10:47 am #22

Smoking after cardiac transplantation

American Journal of Transplantation. 2008 Apr;8(4):866-71.

Botha P, Peaston R, White K, Forty J, Dark JH, Parry G.
Department of Cardiopulmonary Transplantation, Freeman Hospital, High Heaton, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. [url=mailto:P.Botha@ncl.ac.uk]P.Botha@ncl.ac.uk[/url]

Abstract

Although smoking cessation is a prerequisite prior to listing for cardiac transplantation, some patients return to smoking after recovery. We have covertly assessed the smoking habits of our cardiac transplant recipients (with ethical approval) since 1993 by measuring urinary cotinine: a level of >500 ng/mL signifying continued tobacco use. We retrospectively analyzed survival, causes of death and the development of graft coronary artery disease (GCAD) with respect to the number of positive and negative cotinine levels. One hundred four of 380 (27.4%) patients tested positive for active smoking at some point posttransplant, and 57 (15.0%) tested positive repeatedly. Smokers suffered significantly more deaths due to GCAD (21.2% vs. 12.3%, p < 0.05), and due to malignancy (16.3% vs. 5.8%, p < 0.001). In univariate analysis, smoking after heart transplantation shortened median survival from 16.28 years to 11.89 years. After correcting for the effects of pretransplant smoking in time-dependent multivariate analysis, posttransplant smoking remained the most significant determinant of overall mortality (p < 0.00001). We conclude that tobacco smoking after cardiac transplantation significantly impacts survival by accelerating the development of graft vasculopathy and malignancy. We hope that this information will deter cardiac transplant recipients from relapsing, and intensify efforts in improving cessation rates.


http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/ab ... 07.02119.x
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Stevo Wev0
Stevo Wev0

April 2nd, 2008, 4:29 am #23

Hi all,

Oh dear:

"One hundred four of 380 (27.4%) patients tested positive for active smoking at some point posttransplant, and 57 (15.0%) tested positive repeatedly."

I'm guessing, it's not clear in the text, that the numbers refer to those who had given up smoking prior to surgery rather than never-smokers. I'd like to point out before we all condemn the fools that in the UK the health authorities are in bed with the big pharmaceutical companies (they proudly talk of 'deals' on the department of health web site) so it can't be easy for the poor souls after transplant. On the radio it says constantly to '… see your pharmacist' if you want to stop smoking here in England and those adds are paid for by my taxes!

NTAP and don't ingest nicotine

Stevo
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Joined: November 11th, 2008, 7:22 pm

October 18th, 2010, 11:51 pm #24

Death by Smoking
How should your family describe your cause of death?
Was it suicide, murder, an accident or stupidity?
Although the below chart was compiled primarily using 2006 United States ,
data, your nation's overall death category percentages may be fairly similar.
Cause of Death How to Prevent These Deaths    2006 Deaths  
AIDS condoms, education, research 12,113
Asthma no prevention, only treatment 3,613
Auto Accidents seatbelts, airbags, highway safety, training 45,316
Bike Accidents reflectors, lights, helmets and training 714
Breast Cancer mammography and medical research 41,210
Diabetes medical research 72,449
Drowning life jackets, swimming lessons, supervision 3,579
Influenza treatment, vaccines 849
Falls awareness, safety harnesses and helmets 20,823
Fires & Burns alarms, extinguishers, education and planning 3,109
Gun Accidents deprive children of access and hunter training 642
Hepatitis vaccine (A&B) and clean needles & testing (C) 7,250
Illegal/Legal Drugs motivation, education and support 24,400
Leukemia research, exercise, diet, and no tobacco 21,944
Lightening stay indoors and wear rubber shoes 57
Liver Disease sound diet, max. 2 oz. of alcohol, research 27,555
Meningitis vaccinations 634
Murder police, courts, prisons, awareness 18,573
Poisoning secure cleaning fluids, poisons and pills 27,531
Prostate Cancer testing, exercise, diet, research 28,372
Shark Attacks awareness, education 1
Skin Cancer limit sun exposure, use screening products 8,441
Snake Bites awareness, boots, vaccines 5
Suicide
counseling, medication and love 33,300
Syphilis abstinence, condoms, education 36
Tuberculosis treatment, vaccine, education 652
Ulcers avoid tobacco, alcohol and caffeine 3,323
TOTAL OF ALL OF THE ABOVE

397,479
SMOKING TOTAL ANNUAL U.S. SMOKING DEATHS 443,000
Death by Tobacco
Suicide?  Murder?  Accident?  Stupidity?
© WhyQuit.Com 2010

Why Wear Seatbelts?
Today there are roughly 46 million current smokers in the United States, which is nearly 20% of our entire population.  If 20% of the 45,316 who died in 2006 automobile accidents were smokers, your chances of dying from smoking are roughly 50 times greater than being killed in a vehicle collision.  With those kind of odds, why even wear a seatbelt? With roughly 200,000 middle-aged smokers expected to die from smoking related diseases this year, each an average of 22.5 years early, wouldn't it make more sense to sell the seatbelts and the airbags and use the money for a down payment on a coffin?

I corresponded with a 46 year-old with terminal lung cancer and little time remaining.  We found we had something in common.  She mentioned that she always bought her cigarettes by the pack too because she always believed that tomorrow would finally be the day she quit.  We rolled the same dice.  Her luck ran out.  We both quit smoking.  Sadly, with entirely different outcomes.

Why not stay off of the above list altogether and increase your odds of dying of natural causes at a ripe old age? Why cause your own death and accept 50% odds of losing roughly 5,000 sunrises? Is gradually smoking ourself to death committing suicide? If the world's dirtiest drug delivery device kills you, should your family consider your death to be murder or an accident? You may want to try to explain it to them now.  It might help take the sting out of their coming belief that you loved nicotine more than them.

According to the World Health Organization, each and every day smoking claims more than thirteen thousand lives.  Which cigarette in which pack contains the toxin that gives birth to that first cancerous cell, to the first diseased cell, or that pulls death's trigger in producing a massive heart attack or stroke? 

It isn't that we can't hear the entire world screaming the insanity of us smoking pack after pack. It's that our addicted limbic mind is screaming even louder that smoking nicotine is as important as eating, with quitting akin to starvation.

Nicotine addiction is a disease and "wanting" disorder of the mind that's as permanent as alcoholism and enslaves the same dopamine pathways as illegal drugs. The following two free e-books will make you more dependency recovery savvy and than your addiction is strong. Knowledge isn't just power but a quitting method.

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Joined: November 11th, 2008, 7:22 pm

March 12th, 2012, 6:34 pm #25

Sadly, the below study asserts that, for the first time, the annual U.S. smoking related deaths has climbed to more than a half million per year, 520,000.   Still just one rule for each of us ... no nicotine today.   John 

Smoking-attributable mortality in the United States. Epidemiology. 2011 May;22(3):350-5.

Rostron B.
Source Department of Demography, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA. [url=mailto:brianr@demog.berkeley.edu]brianr@demog.berkeley.edu[/url]



Abstract BACKGROUND: Various methods are used to estimate smoking-attributable mortality, but these methods often produce differing results. Most do not provide estimates for specific age groups or directly control for confounding factors.

METHODS: US smoking attributable mortality by age is estimated here based on relative mortality hazards for smokers and observed death rates for never-smokers. Hazard ratios for smokers are estimated through survival analysis of data from adults in the 1997-2004 National Health Interview Survey, followed for mortality through the end of 2006. A variety of possible confounding risk factors are controlled for in the analysis.

RESULTS: There were an estimated 291,000 smoking-attributable deaths among men and 229,000 such deaths among women annually in the United States from 2002 through 2006. These figures are generally consistent with, but somewhat higher than, published estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, particularly for women.

CONCLUSION: This method provides reasonable estimates of total and age-specific smoking-attributable mortality in the United States that include controls for potential confounding factors.


PMID:  21378573

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21378573
Last edited by JohnPolito on March 12th, 2012, 6:39 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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