Association of exclusive smokeless tobacco
consumption with hypertension in an
adult male rural population of India Tobacco Induced Diseases 2009, 5:15
Published: 24 November 2009
Ambarish Pandey, Nivedita Patni, Sasmit Sarangi, Mansher Singh, Kartavya Sharma, Ananth K Vellimana and Somdutta Patra
Abstract Introduction Tobacco consumption is a major source of mortality and morbidity in India . Prevalence of smokeless tobacco (ST) consumption in India is around 20%. Studies have shown increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events among the ST consumers. This is a cross-sectional study done to look into the association of exclusive smokeless tobacco consumption with hypertension, in an adult male rural population of north India.
Methods All male residents of a village in north India above 15 years of age, who did not have any acute or chronic morbidity were included after taking an informed consent. Subjects were interviewed regarding their demographic profile, socioeconomic status and tobacco consuming habits. Current smokeless tobacco user was defined as one who has ever consumed tobacco orally in past 1 month. Blood pressure of the subjects was also recorded. Cut offs used for systolic and diastolic hypertension were 140 mm hg and 90 mm Hg respectively.
Results 443 subjects were included in the study. Prevalence of exclusive ST users was 21% while 19.4% consumed both forms and 26.6% did not take any form of tobacco. Mean systolic and diastolic BP were significantly higher in exclusive ST users(systolic BP=139.2+17.4,diastolic BP = 86.8+11.5)as compared to the non users(systolic BP= 135.7+18.8 , diastolic BP= 82.6 +11.5; p value < 0.05). The prevalence of diastolic hypertension was significantly higher in exclusive ST users as compared to non users ( 40.9%, 22.9% ;p value = 0.01) . The OR for diastolic hypertension in male ST users was 2.3( 95% C.I. = 1.3-4.3). Prevalence of systolic hypertension was higher in exclusive ST users too though this was not statistically significant (43%,36.4%;p value = 0.39.).
Conclusion ST consumption is associated with increased prevalence of high BP in the adult male rural population.This is an indicator of increased predisposition to major adverse cardiac events later in their life time. Prevention of ST consumption could be an important intervention in preventing the ongoing upswing in prevalence of chronic heart disease.
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Risk of Incident Cardiovascular Disease Among Users of Smokeless Tobacco in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study American Journal of Epidemiology Advance Access published online on August 5, 2010
Hiroshi Yatsuya, Aaron R. Folsom and for the ARIC Investigators
Use of smokeless tobacco in the United States has been relatively constant in recent years, as tobacco companies continue aggressive marketing campaigns. The health effects of smokeless tobacco use need further documentation. Thus, the authors examined whether current use of smokeless tobacco was associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 14,498 men and women aged 45–64 years at baseline (1987–1989) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.
There were 2,572 incident CVD events (myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, coronary death, or stroke) during a median of 16.7 years of follow-up (maximum = 19.1 years). Current use of smokeless tobacco at baseline was associated with 1.27-fold greater CVD incidence (95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.52) than was nonuse, independently of demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle and other tobacco-related variables. Past use of smokeless tobacco was not associated with CVD incidence.
In conclusion, current use of smokeless tobacco was associated with increased risk of CVD incidence in ARIC cigarette nonsmokers. Current users of smokeless tobacco should be informed of its harm and advised to quit the practice. Current cigarette smokers should also be given sufficient information on safe, therapeutic methods of quitting which do not include switching to smokeless tobacco.
PubMed Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20688904
Journal Link: http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/conte ... act/kwq191