Cavity and Pharynx The American Cancer Society estimates that 29,370 men and women (19,100 men and 10,270 women) will be diagnosed with and 7,320 men and women will die of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx in 20051.
The following information is based on NCI's SEER Cancer Statistics Review2 and other statistics from NCI's analysis of SEER incidence data and NCHS mortality data.
Incidence & Mortality SEER Incidence From 1998-2002, the median age at diagnosis for cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx was 63 years of age3. Approximately 0.6% were diagnosed under age 20; 2.7% between 20 and 34; 7.7% between 35 and 44; 20.2% between 45 and 54; 23.0% between 55 and 64; 23.0% between 65 and 74; 17.1% between 75 and 84; and 5.8% 85+ years of age.
The age-adjusted incidence rate was 10.5 per 100,000 men and women per year. These rates are based on cases diagnosed in 1998-2002 from 13 SEER geographic areas. Incidence rates by race and sex were:
|All Races||15.5 per 100,000 men||6.4 per 100,000 women|
|White||15.4 per 100,000 men||6.4 per 100,000 women|
|Black||19.0 per 100,000 men||6.1 per 100,000 women|
|Asian/Pacific Islander||11.9 per 100,000 men||5.8 per 100,000 women|
|American Indian/Alaska Native||8.9 per 100,000 men||3.8 per 100,000 women|
|Hispanic||9.2 per 100,000 men||3.9 per 100,000 women|
US Mortality From 1998-2002, the median age at death for cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx was 68 years of age4. Approximately 0.2% died under age 20; 0.9% between 20 and 34; 3.7% between 35 and 44; 13.9% between 45 and 54; 22.3% between 55 and 64; 25.6% between 65 and 74; 22.5% between 75 and 84; and 10.9% 85+ years of age.
The age-adjusted death rate was 2.8 per 100,000 men and women per year. These rates are based on patients who died in 1998-2002 in the US. Death rates by race and sex were:
|All Races||4.2 per 100,000 men||1.6 per 100,000 women|
|White||3.9 per 100,000 men||1.6 per 100,000 women|
|Black||7.1 per 100,000 men||1.9 per 100,000 women|
|Asian/Pacific Islander||3.5 per 100,000 men||1.4 per 100,000 women|
|American Indian/Alaska Native||3.6 per 100,000 men||1.2 per 100,000 women|
|Hispanic||2.9 per 100,000 men||0.8 per 100,000 women|
Trends in Rates Trends in rates can be described in many ways. Information for trends over a fixed period of time, for example 1992-2002, can be evaluated by the annual percentage change (APC). If there is a negative sign before the number, the trend is a decrease; otherwise it is an increase. If there is an asterisk after the APC then the trend was significant, that is, one believes that it is beyond chance, i.e. 95% sure, that the increase or decrease is real over the period 1992-2002. If the trend is not significant, the trend is usually reported as stable or level. Joinpoint analyses can be used over a long period of time to evaluate when changes in the trend have occurred along with the APC which shows how much the trend has changed between each of the joinpoints.
The joinpoint trend in SEER cancer incidence with associated APC(%) for cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx between 1975-2002 was:
|All Races Male and Female:||0.8 for 1975-1981;||-1.2* for 1981-2002|
|All Races Male:||-0.1 for 1975-1983;||-1.5* for 1983-2002|
|All Races Female:||2.6* for 1975-1980;||-1.0* for 1980-2002|
The joinpoint trend in US cancer mortality with associated APC(%) for cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx between 1975-2002 was:
|All Races Male and Female:||-0.4 for 1975-1979;||-1.7* for 1979-1993;||-2.5* for 1993-2002|
|All Races Male:||-1.8* for 1975-1991;||-2.6* for 1991-2002|
|All Races Female:||-0.9* for 1975-1990;||-2.4* for 1990-2002|
Survival & Stage Survival rates can be calculated by different methods for different purposes. The survival rates presented here are based on the relative survival rate, which measures the survival of the cancer patients in comparison to the general population to estimate the effect of cancer. The overall 5-year relative survival rate for 1995-2001 from 9 SEER geographic areas was 59.4%. Five-year relative survival rates by race and sex were: 61.1% for white men; 63.1% for white women; 34.3% for black men; 52.0% for black women.
The stage distribution based on historic stage shows that 34% of oral cavity and pharynx cancer cases are diagnosed while the cancer is still confined to the primary site (localized stage); 51% are diagnosed after the cancer has spread to regional lymphnodes or directly beyond the primary site; 10% are diagnosed after the cancer has already metastasized (distant stage) and for the remaining 5% the staging information was unknown. The corresponding 5-year relative survival rates were: 82.1% for localized; 51.3% for regional; 27.6% for distant; and 46.6% for unstaged.
Lifetime Risk Based on rates from 2000-2002, 1.02% of men and women born today will be diagnosed with cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx at some time during their lifetime. This number can also be expressed as 1 in 98 men and women will be diagnosed with cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx during their lifetime. These statistics are called the lifetime risk of developing cancer. Sometimes it is more useful to look at the probability of developing cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx between two age groups. For example, 0.72% of men will develop cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx between their 50th and 70th birthdays compared to 0.26% for women.
Prevalence On January 1, 2002, in the United States there were approximately 231,799 men and women alive who had a history of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx -- 147,272 men and 84,527 women. This includes any person alive on January 1, 2002 who had been diagnosed with cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx at any point prior to January 1, 2002 and includes persons with active disease and those who are cured of their disease. Prevalence can also be expressed as a percentage and it can also be calculated for a specific amount of time prior to January 1, 2002 such as disgnosed within 5 years of January 1, 2002.
References All statistics in this report are based on SEER incidence and NCHS mortality statistics. Most can be found within:
Ries LAG, Eisner MP, Kosary CL, Hankey BF, Miller BA, Clegg L, Mariotto A, Feuer EJ, Edwards BK (eds). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2002, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2002/, based on November 2004 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site 2005.
See below for specific referenced tables
1 Table I-1 (http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2002/re ... ble.01.pdf)
2Oral Cavity and Pharynx Section (http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2002/re ... cavity.pdf)
3 Table I-11 (http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2002/re ... 1_2pgs.pdf)
4 Table I-13 (http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2002/re ... 3_2pgs.pdf)