Smokers smoking fewer cigarettes
harder, deeper and longer
While the below new study found that the average number of cigarettes smoked per day fell from 17.3 between 1998-1994 to 12.3 per day in 2012, it also found that the cotinine per cigarette smoked (a nicotine metabolite and marker) increased by 42 percent.
Fewer places to smoke, with each cigarette more expensive, it may be decades before we know the long-term health consequences of assaulting lung and body tissues with more intense concentrations of the hundreds of toxins that accompany the nicotine needed to briefly satisfy the addict's wanting and urges for more.
Imagine entire days where you never once think about wanting to smoke, dip, chew or vape nicotine. Once ready to journey home, we invite you to explorewww.WhyQuit.com
, as it was built with you in mind. And there was always only one rule, that as REAL drug addicts in every sense (seehttp://whyquit.com/whyquit/LinksAAddiction.html
), when quitting there's no such thing as just one, or just once. As permanent as alcoholism, for us, one puff will always be too many, while thousands never enough!
Study Title: Variation in Nicotine Intake Among U.S. Cigarette Smokers During the Past 25 Years: Evidence From NHANES Surveys.
Journal: Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2014 Dec; Vol. 16(12), Pages 1620-1628
Authors: Jarvis MJ1, Giovino GA2, O'Connor RJ3, Kozlowski LT2, Bernert JT4.
Abstract [Study Summary]
OBJECTIVE: To estimate changes in nicotine intakes among U.S. cigarette smokers from 1988 to 2012 with the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).
METHODS: NHANES provides data on nationally representative samples of cigarette smokers from the civilian noninstitutionalized U.S. population. A total of 4,304 smokers aged 20 years and older were studied in NHANES III 1988-1994 and 7,095 were studied in the continuous NHANES 1999-2012. We examined serum cotinine concentrations, daily cigarette consumption, and estimated nicotine intake per cigarette, with adjustment for sex, age, racial/ethnic background, level of education, and body mass index.
RESULTS: There was little overall change in nicotine intake from smoking cigarettes either in the U.S. population as a whole or in major racial/ethnic subgroups during the 25-year period from 1988. Serum cotinine averaged 223.7ng/mL (95% confidence interval [CI] = 216.1-231.3) in 1988-1994, which was not significantly different from the adjusted mean of 219.2ng/mL (95% CI = 214.1-224.4) in 1999-2012. During the same period, average daily cigarette consumption declined substantially, from 17.3 (95% CI = 16.5-18.0) in 1988-1994 to 12.3 (95% CI = 11.0-13.6) by 2012. Cotinine per cigarette smoked increased by some 42% between 1988-1994 and 2011-2012, from a geometric mean of 12.4 (95% CI = 11.7-13.1) to 17.6 (95% CI = 16.1-19.2).
CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in cigarette smoking prevalence since the late 1980s, changes in cigarette product design, and the widespread introduction of smoke-free policies have not had a significant impact on nicotine intakes among U.S. smokers. Reductions in cigarette consumption have been offset by increased nicotine intake per cigarette smoked.
PubMed Abstract Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25063772