Greater anger, diminished control and drive, and less fear.

Joined: November 11th, 2008, 7:22 pm

June 25th, 2010, 4:03 pm #1

Dependency's Costs?

Greater anger, diminished
control and drive, and less fear.
The below study is the first to examine anger, control, drive and fear in a large sampling of subjects.  Clearly increased anger and diminished control and motivation (drive) are negatives but this study's finding that smoker are actually less afraid could fuel junkie thinking.  Yes, how can someone who knows that every puff introduces scores of cancer causing chemicals into the body, while destroying more of their body's ability to receive and transport live giving oxygen, be afraid?  But then maybe this fear finding only parallels the fact that, generally speaking, smokers are likely to have once been never-smokers who were a bit more willing to take risks.  Isn't that how most of us became addicted, we weren't afraid of getting hooked, at least briefly?

Anyway, wouldn't it be nice if quitting smoking elevated serotonin levels a bit, allowing the conscious thinking brain greater control over our impulsive mind and traits such as anger and diminished control?   The research seems to be trending in that direction.  Still just one guiding principle providing a 100% guarantee of remaining here on the free side of the bars ... no nicotine today, none!  Yes you can!!!

Breathe deep, hug hard, live long,

John (Gold x11)

Emotional and affective temperaments
and cigarette smoking in a large sample
Journal:  Journal of Affective Disorders, 2010 May 25. [Epub ahead of print]

Authors: Bisol LW, Soldado F, Albuquerque C, Lorenzi TM, Lara DR.

Faculdade de Biociências, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil; Departamento de Psiquiatria, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.


BACKGROUND: Tobacco use has been associated with externalized personality traits. Our aim was to evaluate the association of smoking with emotional and affective temperaments in a large sample.

METHODS: In this cross-sectional web-based survey, volunteers completed the Combined Emotional and Affective Temperament Scale (CEATS), which assesses emotional (fear, drive, anger, and control) and affective temperaments (e.g. cyclothymic, irritable), and questions about smoking.

RESULTS: Among the 5379 subjects (1370 males), there were 60% non-smokers, 17% quitters and 23% current smokers. Non-smokers had higher fear and control and lower anger than quitters and smokers, and higher drive than smokers. Quitters had higher drive and control and lower anger than smokers. Smoking was lower among apathetics, depressives, euthymics and hyperthymics and higher in cyclothymics and labiles. Lower drive and higher anger were associated with heavier smoking. Less adaptive temperament was related to higher prevalence of and heavier smoking.

LIMITATIONS: The data was collected from a convenience sample by the internet, and most volunteers assessed the instrument through a psychoeducational website for bipolar spectrum disorders, leading to a higher proportion of cyclothymics; the assessment of smoking habits was limited to two questions; the study was cross-sectional.

CONCLUSIONS: Smoking was associated with lower fear, control and drive, higher anger and unstable externalized affective temperaments. Lower control and higher anger were associated with being a heavy smoker and current smoking. Assessment of temperament may help decision about treatments for smoking cessation.

Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

PMID: 20537710

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