after smoking cessation:
systematic review and meta-analysis.
Authors: Taylor G, McNeill A, Girling A, Farley A, Lindson-Hawley N, Aveyard P.
To investigate change in mental health after smoking cessation compared with continuing to smoke.
Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.
Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO for relevant studies from inception to April 2012. Reference lists of included studies were hand searched, and authors were contacted when insufficient data were reported.
ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES:
Longitudinal studies of adults that assessed mental health before smoking cessation and at least six weeks after cessation or baseline in healthy and clinical populations.
26 studies that assessed mental health with questionnaires designed to measure anxiety, depression, mixed anxiety and depression, psychological quality of life, positive affect, and stress were included. Follow-up mental health scores were measured between seven weeks and nine years after baseline. Anxiety, depression, mixed anxiety and depression, and stress significantly decreased between baseline and follow-up in quitters compared with continuing smokers: the standardised mean differences (95% confidence intervals) were anxiety -0.37 (95% confidence interval -0.70 to -0.03); depression -0.25 (-0.37 to -0.12); mixed anxiety and depression -0.31 (-0.47 to -0.14); stress -0.27 (-0.40 to -0.13). Both psychological quality of life and positive affect significantly increased between baseline and follow-up in quitters compared with continuing smokers 0.22 (0.09 to 0.36) and 0.40 (0.09 to 0.71), respectively). There was no evidence that the effect size differed between the general population and populations with physical or psychiatric disorders.
Smoking cessation is associated with reduced depression, anxiety, and stress and improved positive mood and quality of life compared with continuing to smoke. The effect size seems as large for those with psychiatric disorders as those without. The effect sizes are equal or larger than those of antidepressant treatment for mood and anxiety disorders.
Link to study summary: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24524926
Link to free full-text copy of the study: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3923980/
Researchers are just beginning to appreciate what ex-smokers have long known, that being free and back home is wonderful not horrible. Instead of Marlboro advertising "Come to where the flavor is" its logo should read, "Marlboro: let us destroy your mental health."
The above conclusion was reached after evaluation of 26 studies which had assessed mental health by way of questionnaires designed to measure anxiety, depression, mixed anxiety and depression, psychological quality of life, positive affect, and stress.
If still smoking why continue to keep yourself depressed, riddled with anxiety and stressed? Because you are being fooled by the collective tease of thousands of prior nicotine replenishments. It's likely that the false message bantering about inside your mind is that use satisfies wanting. Truth is, the only way to bring the wanting, urges and craves to an end is to develop the courage to say "no" to them.
STRESS BUT ONLY NICOTINE'S ABSENCE
Both stress and alcohol turn urine more acidic. Your kidneys respond by accelerating removal of alkaloids from your bloodstream. Nicotine is an alkaloid. The more stressed you become, or the more alcohol you drink, the quicker the onset of wanting, urges, craves and early withdrawal.
Never once has nicotine replenishment fixed the stressful event. The tire was still flat, the bill unpaid, the relationship needed mending, the terrorist had still attacked, or your loved one was still sick or injured.
Visit www.WhyQuit.com and spend time inside Joel's Library as knowledge is power. Why stay depressed and in darkness when you can turn on the lights? Just one lesson at a time, yes you can!
Joel's video explanation of stresses impact upon smokers and ex-smokers:
Joel's mental health video:
Depression: a normal reaction or a real organic depressive effect? http://ffn.yuku.com/topic/12459
Chapter 9 of FFN-TJH reviewing the symptoms of recovery, including depression: http://whyquit.com/FFN/chapters/FFN_09_Physical.pdf