To be fair: and it is hard to be fair--adoption, twins, child rearing and all of that was thought of in a much different way back then compared with now. My father's cousin and her husband were unable to have children of their own; I believe that there were miscarriages and/or a newborn who died but not completely sure. Anyway, she and her husband adopted a son. My father's opinion--and really, the entire extended family's opinion was that he wasn't their 'real' son and that he should be very, very, very grateful to the adoptive (only well to do members of my family) parents, who frankly never seemed other than to be doting, loving parents. I think it bothered my father to know that he, with no genetic ties to the family, would inherit some family property. On the other hand, what I remember of the kid was that he wasn't an especially nice kid. I have no idea how much of that perception was colored by my father's disapproval. My uncle married a woman with 3 children and they never had children together. Clearly, my uncle regarded his step children as his children although he never adopted them--that would not have been done as their own father was living (and an abusive SOB) and you don't turn your back on blood no matter how abusive ratbastard SOBs they are. He didn't think very highly of the kids when they were grown and while we were almost like siblings when we were growing up, my dad did have a point. One cousin basically stole my uncle's estate, such as it was. They were really much more interested in the (very small amount) money than in my uncle whom I loved dearly but who was not a warm and fuzzy kind of dad. He would have died for them, and killed for them but he wasn't really a warm and fuzzy person.