Akper Aliev, Bob Del Turco.
Modern carriers of haplogroup E1b1b1c1 (M34) are the descendants of the ancient Levantines
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Who, where, when
The homeland of haplogroup E1b1b1c1 (M34) is placed in a relatively small region of the Middle East, covering south-east Asia Minor and the Levant areas (Syria and Palestine) . This opinion is based on the fact that it is here presented as the haplogroup E1b1b1c1* (M34), and its known subclades: E1b1b1c1a* (M84), E1b1b1c1a1* (M136) and E1b1b1c1b* (M290) [2-6]. It may be the result of the long-term presence of this haplogroup. The haplogroup was found in the Eastern Mediterranean countries, in the European Mediterranean countries, the British Isles [7-11] as well as on the Arabian peninsula, but with relatively low diversity [12-14].
The following paper will help to better understand the history of the haplogroup and how it occurred
Time of occurrence
First, let’s determine and clarify the time of the first appearance of this haplogroup. That is, to calculate the age of the most recent common ancestor of all modern carriers of this haplogroup. It requires a large sample of «long» haplotypes (preferably 67-marker). It should be noted that the calculated age will determine only the approximate date, after which the haplogroup could not appear, the lower temporal boundary, which may not always coincide with its true age. For this calculation we will use the manual , assuming that one generation is 25 years.
If you have to deal with rare haplogroups, one will inevitably have to be content with modest samples. But with too few (less than 10) numbers of haplotypes used for analysis, calculating the age of the haplogroup has no meaning: in this case the age would be underestimated.
Analysis of the history of the settlement of this haplogroup is easier if we can identify one or more clusters in this haplogroup. Cluster is the independent branch, forming one separate haplotype. Calculating the age of the cluster, and knowing the geography of its spread can more clearly elucidate the history of the settlement of the carriers of this haplogroup. How exactly? It will become clear below.
According to the classification of the Haplozone E3b Project , the known haplogroup clusters of E1b1b1c1 are identified as E1b1b1c1*-A, E1b1b1c1*-B, E1b1b1c1*-C, E1b1b1c1*-D1 («Jewish cluster») and E1b1b1c1*-D2.
Each of these clusters has its own peculiarities.
E1b1b1c1*-A is the «European» cluster, discovered among the Germans and the Spaniards;
E1b1b1c1*-B is the «Arabian» cluster found among the Arabs from Persian Gulf countries;
E1b1b1c1*-C is the «British» cluster found among the British and Irish.
E1b1b1c1*-D1 is the «Jewish» cluster found among Ashkenazi. History of this cluster (about 1000 years ago) was considered in another paper  and will not be considered here.
E1b1b1c1*-D2 is the «mixed» cluster, found both among Europeans and people of the Levant and Turkey.
Let us calculate the ages of these clusters. It is necessary to mention that due to the small number of haplotype clusters of E1b1b1c1*-A, E1b1b1c1-B and E1b1b1c1-C, the probability is very high that we will observe very «rejuvenation» ages. For example, the cluster E1b1b1c1*-A (N=4, 37 markers), such age is 3525±650 years. Ancestor of E1b1b1c1-B (N=2, 67 markers) lived 350±175 and E1b1b1c1-C (N=3, 25 markers) – 750±400 years ago. Although the ages are approximate, it shows that these clusters occurred in different epochs.
More plausible results can be expected when calculating the age of the cluster E1b1b1c1*-D2, whose sample consisted of 32 67-marker haplotypes. Its age was 3850±450 years. The mixture of nations in this cluster indicates that the founding father was born 3400-4300 years ago in the Levant. Part of his descendants later migrated to Europe. This confirms the close age proximity of the cluster E1b1b1c1*-A, equal to 3525±650 years. Apparently, the emergence of these two clusters are linked to the same period in the history of the Middle East.
To determine the age of the common ancestor of all E1b1b1c1, authors compiled samples with the involvement of 9-markers of Lebanese, Syrian, Palestinian and Turkish haplotypes from the papers [2, 3], the modal haplotypes of all noted clusters and haplotypes are not related to any of the known clusters and designated as E1b1b1c1*-Miscellaneous (N=51, 9 markers). Age of the most recent common ancestor of all modern carriers of E1b1b1c1* is 7000±850 years.
Ethnolinguistic portrait of the ancient Levant
The analysis suggests the presence of haplogroup E1b1b1c1 in the peoples of western Asia Minor with V millennium BC. e. These people are remarkable as the creators of the first civilizations of the world, and laid the foundations of social and cultural development of mankind. The presence of numerous archaeological and written records will trace the historical path of these peoples.
According to the hypothesis of TV Gamkrelidze and VV Ivanov, not later than the V-IV millennium BC in the Middle East began the gradual disintegration of Indo-European, Proto-Semitic and Proto-Kartrvelian languages and their interaction with other languages of the region [18, 19] (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1. Alleged scheme of spreading of languages in the Middle East in the IV-III millennium BC. 1 – Semitic («Paleo-Canaanian»), 2 – Proto-Chattian, 3 – Proto-Kartrvelian 4 – Hurro-Urartian, 5 – Sumerian, 6 – Proto-Indo-European; 7 – Elamite 
Over time, these proto-languages began to break up into smaller subgroups. Among all these languages, Semitic, Hurrian and Indo-European languages have relevance to the area of Levant and Southeast Anatolia, so one can assume that the ancient native of haplogroup E1b1b1c1 could be from this area :
The people who lived in the III-II millennium BC spoke the North-west Semitic languages, Proto-Canaanite and Aramaic subgroups – Amorean, Ugaritic, Old Canaanite, Phoenician, Hebrew, Moab, and the Aramaic dialects. Sometimes Pre-Jewish ancient peoples of Palestine – the Amorites, the Phoenicians, Moabites etc. – collectively called the Canaanites. The greatest contribution to world civilization of the Canaanites is the invention of alphabetic writing.
Amorites are known as the founders of the first royal dynasty of Babylon, the most famous representative of which was Hammurabi, the creator of the Code of Laws.
The Phoenicians created a powerful civilization with advanced craft and maritime trade. The Phoenician alphabet became one of the first recorded in the history of systems of syllabic phonetic letters.
The Jews are known as the founders of Judaism – one of the first monotheistic religions of the world, from which later emerged Christianity and Islam. Canaanian pantheon influenced Jewish demonology, in which the names of Canaanite gods turned into epithets of servants of evil – Beelzebub, Vaalberit, Astaroth, etc.
Aramaeans never formed a united nation and did not have a single state. Nevertheless, their language playing the role of lingua franca in large parts of the Middle East. It was the official language of the Persian Achaemenid Empire, the spoken language of Palestine at the time of Jesus Christ.
The Indo-European family in this area in the III-II millennium BC was presented by both the Hittite and Mitanni Aryan language.
Hittites were the first Indo-European people who created a state – the Hittite kingdom. From Chattites they took over the processing technology of iron, which was the guarded secret of Chattites.
Mitanni Aryans were part of the population of the ancient kingdom of Mitanni, who spoke with a separate Aryan language. They were known due to handicrafts of training horses.
Assuming an ancestry of the Proto-Indo-European language in North Syria, the migration of people from the Middle East to Europe around 3400-4300 years ago and the formation of clusters E1b1b1c1-D2 and E1b1b1c1-A can be attributed with migration speakers of Proto-Hellenic and «Old Balkanian» dialects from Asia Minor to the Balkans.
The Hurrian population, along with the Semitic, lived in the II millennium BC in parts of northern Syria and southeastern Anatolia. Hurrians created the kingdom Urkish and Nawar, Mitanni and Kizzuwatna, as well as a number of city-states from Palestine to Mesopotamia. In the Bible, among the inhabitants of Pre-Jewish Palestine are noted Horites the small groups of Semitizated Hurrits retains its tribal designation until the first centuries of the I millennium BC.
By their anthropological type ancient and modern populations of Levant and Asia Minor refers to the type of the Armenoid (or Assyroid) race, known by ancient monuments in Asia Minor. This type is characterized by a pronounced brachycephaly, enhanced development of hair on the face and body, a unique form of the nose (look at Hittite reliefs, Fig. 2) .
Fig. 2. The external appearance of the ancient Levantines (Hittite king, praying god of fertility)
Although with time almost all the ancient languages of the Levant later were replaced by Arabic, Turkish and Kurdish languages, physical displacement of the population did not happen. It is evidenced by the continuous presence of haplogroup E1b1b1c1 for thousands of years and remained unchanged anthropological type of the population.
Fig. 3. Modern Levantine
http://dna-forums.com/index.php?/topic/ ... ntry187489wrote:So today, Palestinians, Jordanians, Lebanese, Syrians, and some Turks are among those of haplogroup E1b1b1c1 and direct descendants of ancient peoples – the creators of the civilizations of the Eastern Mediterranean.
1) Haplogroup E1b1b1c1* (M34) was born in an area of modern south-east Turkey, Syria, Lebanon and Palestine about 7000 years ago.
2) In ancient times, carriers of this haplogroup were peoples of civilizations of the Eastern Mediterranean and Asia Minor, who spoke the Northwest Semitic languages, Anatolian and Mitannian Aryan languages, as well as Hurrites language.
3) Approximately 3400-4300 years ago some carriers of E1b1b1c1 migrated from the Middle East to Europe, poured into the European nations, forming clusters E1b1b1c1-D2 and E1b1b1c1-A.
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